London in 1731 Containing a Description of the City of London; Both in Regard to Its Extent, Buildings, Government, Trade, Etc.

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Author: Manoel Gonzales

[Municipal and Market Facilities]

I proceed in the next place to show how well London is supplied with water, firing, bread-corn, flesh, fish, beer, wine, and other provisions.

And as to water, no city was ever better furnished with it, for every man has a pipe or fountain of good fresh water brought into his house, for less than twenty shillings a year, unless brewhouses, and some other great houses and places that require more water than an ordinary family consumes, and these pay in proportion to the quantity they spend; many houses have several pipes laid in, and may have one in every room, if they think fit, which is a much greater convenience than two or three fountains in a street, for which some towns in other countries are so much admired.

These pipes of water are chiefly supplied from the waterworks at London Bridge, Westminster, Chelsea, and the New River.

Besides the water brought from the Thames and the New River, there are a great many good springs, pumps, and conduits about the town, which afford excellent water for drinking. There are also mineral waters on the side of Islington and Pancras.

This capital also is well supplied with firing, particularly coals from Newcastle, and pit-coals from Scotland, and other parts; but wood is excessively dear, and used by nobody for firing, unless bakers, and some few persons of quality in their chambers and drawing-rooms.

As for bread-corn, it is for the most part brought to London after it is converted into flour, and both bread and flour are extremely reasonable: we here buy as much good white bread for threehalfpence or twopence, as will serve an Englishman a whole day, and flour in proportion. Good strong beer also may be had of the brewer, for about twopence a quart, and of the alehouses that retail it for threepence a quart. Bear Quay, below bridge, is a great market for malt, wheat, and horse-corn; and Queenhithe, above the bridge, for malt, wheat, flour, and other grain.

The butchers here compute that there are about one thousand oxen sold in Smithfield Market one week with another the year round; besides many thousand sheep, hogs, calves, pigs, and lambs, in this and other parts of the town; and a great variety of venison, game, and poultry. Fruit, roots, herbs, and other garden stuff are very cheap and good.

Fish also are plentiful, such as fresh cod, plaice, flounders, soles, whitings, smelts, sturgeon, oysters, lobsters, crabs, shrimps, mackerel, and herrings in the season; but it must be confessed that salmon, turbot, and some other sea-fish are dear, as well as fresh-water fish.

Wine is imported from foreign countries, and is dear. The port wine which is usually drunk, and is the cheapest, is two shillings a quart, retailed in taverns, and not much less than eighteen or twenty pounds the hogshead, when purchased at the best hand; and as to French wines, the duties are so high upon them that they are double the price of the other at least. White wine is about the same price as red port, and canary about a third dearer.

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Chicago: Manoel Gonzales, "[Municipal and Market Facilities]," London in 1731 Containing a Description of the City of London; Both in Regard to Its Extent, Buildings, Government, Trade, Etc., ed. F. N. Maude and trans. Giles, John Allen, 1808-1884 in London in 1731 Containing a Description of the City of London; Both in Regard to Its Extent, Buildings, Government, Trade, Etc. (London: 1911, 1909), Original Sources, accessed September 24, 2018, http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=D1GTBJEBNSRFPW8.

MLA: Gonzales, Manoel. "[Municipal and Market Facilities]." London in 1731 Containing a Description of the City of London; Both in Regard to Its Extent, Buildings, Government, Trade, Etc., edited by F. N. Maude, and translated by Giles, John Allen, 1808-1884, in London in 1731 Containing a Description of the City of London; Both in Regard to Its Extent, Buildings, Government, Trade, Etc., London, 1911, 1909, Original Sources. 24 Sep. 2018. www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=D1GTBJEBNSRFPW8.

Harvard: Gonzales, M, '[Municipal and Market Facilities]' in London in 1731 Containing a Description of the City of London; Both in Regard to Its Extent, Buildings, Government, Trade, Etc., ed. and trans. . cited in 1909, London in 1731 Containing a Description of the City of London; Both in Regard to Its Extent, Buildings, Government, Trade, Etc., 1911, London. Original Sources, retrieved 24 September 2018, from http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=D1GTBJEBNSRFPW8.