Benedict de Spinoza

Benedictus de Spinoza, born Benedito de Espinosa, (November 24, 1632-February 21, 1677), was a Dutch philospher. Many of his ideas and works were highly controversial for his time. Although Spinoza was born and raised Jewish, when he was twenty-three he was expelled from the synagogue for "heresy." In 1670, Spinoza anonymously published the work Theologico-Political Treatise. Due to the unfavorable public reaction this book received, Spinoza did not publish any more of his works in his lifetime. After his death, his friends edited and published his remaining writings, including his crowning achievement, Ethics (published shortly after his death). As with his first published work, his philosophical treatise, Ethics, was highly controversial at the time of its publication.