U.S. Code, Title 46, Shipping, Appendix

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Author: "U.S. Congress, Office of the Law Revision Counsel"

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§ 1121. Investigations, Studies, Records, Etc.

     The Secretary of Transportation is authorized and directed to investigate, determine, and keep current records of—

(a) Suitable ocean routes and lines to foreign ports; vessels and costs of operation

     The ocean services, routes, and lines from ports in the United States, or in a Territory, district, or possession thereof, to foreign markets, which are, or may be, determined by the Secretary of Transportation to be essential for the promotion, development, expansion, and maintenance of the foreign commerce of the United States, and in reaching his determination the Secretary of Transportation shall consider and give due weight to the cost of maintaining each of such steamship lines, the probability that any such line cannot be maintained except at a heavy loss disproportionate to the benefit accruing to foreign trade, the number of sailings and types of vessels that should be employed in such lines, and any other facts and conditions that a prudent business man would consider when dealing with his own business, with the added consideration, however, of the intangible benefit the maintenance of any such line may afford to the foreign commerce of the United States, to the national defense, and to other national requirements;

(b) Bulk cargo carrying services

     The bulk cargo carrying services that should, for the promotion, development, expansion, and maintenance of the foreign commerce of the United States and for the national defense or other national requirements be provided by United States-flag vessels whether or not operating on particular services, routes, or lines;

(c) Vessels required in proposed routes

     The type, size, speed, method of propulsion, and other requirements of the vessels, including express-liner or super-liner vessels, which should be employed in such services or on such routes or lines, and the frequency and regularity of the sailings of such vessels, with a view to furnishing adequate, regular, certain, and permanent service, or which should be employed to provide the bulk cargo carrying services necessary to the promotion, maintenance, and expansion of the foreign commerce of the United States and its national defense or other national requirements whether or not such vessels operate on a particular service, route, or line;

(d) Cost of construction in United States and abroad

     The relative cost of construction of comparable vessels in the United States and in foreign countries;

(e) Relative cost of operation under laws of United States and foreign countries

     The relative cost of marine insurance, maintenance, repairs, wages and subsistence of officers and crews, and all other items of expense, in the operation of comparable vessels under the laws, rules, and regulations of the United States and under those of the foreign countries whose vessels are substantial competitors of any such American vessel;

(f) Foreign subsidies

     The extent and character of the governmental aid and subsidies granted by foreign governments to their merchant marine;

(g) Shipyards

     The number, location, and efficiency of the shipyards existing on June 29, 1936, or thereafter built in the United States;

(h) Laws applicable to aircraft

     To investigate and determine what provisions of this chapter and other Acts relating to shipping should be made applicable to aircraft engaged in foreign commerce in order to further the policy expressed in this chapter, and to recommend appropriate legislation to this end;

(i) Transportation to foreign ports of cotton, coal, lumber, and cement

     The advisability of enactment of suitable legislation authorizing the Secretary of Transportation in an economic or commercial emergency, to aid the farmers and cotton, coal, lumber, and cement producers in any section of the United States in the transportation and landing of their products in any foreign port, which products can be carried in dry-cargo vessels by reducing rates, by supplying additional tonnage to any American operator, or by operation of vessels directly by the Secretary of Transportation, until such time as the Secretary of Transportation shall deem such special rate reduction and operation unnecessary for the benefit of the American farmers and such producers; and

(j) New designs of vessels; intercoastal and inland water transportation

     New designs, new methods of construction, and new types of equipment for vessels; the possibilities of promoting the carrying of American foreign trade in American vessels; and intercoastal and inland water transportation, including their relation to transportation by land and air.

(June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, § 211, 49 Stat. 1989; Pub. L. 91–469, §§ 4, 5, 35(a), (b), Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1018, 1035; Pub. L. 97–31, § 12(67), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159.)

Amendments

     1981—Pub. L. 97–31 in introductory text and subsecs. (a) and (i) substituted "Secretary of Transportation" for "Secretary of Commerce" wherever appearing.

     1970—Pub. L. 91–469, § 35(a), substituted "Secretary of Commerce" for "Commission", once in introductory par., twice in subsec. (a), and thrice in subsec. (i).

     Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–469, §§ 4(1), 35(b), required consideration of the benefit the maintenance of any steamship line may afford to other national requirements and substituted "his" for "its" before "determination", respectively.

     Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–469, § 4(3), added subsec. (b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated (c).

     Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–649, § 4(2), (4), (5), redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c), inserted "method of propulsion" after "speed", and required that the various requirements of the vessels should be employed to provide bulk cargo carrying services, necessary to the promotion, maintenance, and expansion of the foreign commerce of the United States and its national defense or other national requirements whether or not such vessels operate on a particular service, route, or line, respectively. Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

     Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 91–469, § 4(2), redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (e).

     Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 91–469, §§ 4(2), 5, redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e) and struck out "in particular services, routes, and lines" after "comparable vessels" and substituted "American vessel" for "American service route, or line", respectively. Former subsec. (e) redesignated (f).

     Subsecs. (f) to (j). Pub. L. 91–469, § 4(2), redesignated former subsecs. (e) to (i) as (f) to (j), respectively.

Section Referred to in Other Sections

     This section is referred to in sections 1125, 1171, 1173, 1204, 1213, 1222 of this Appendix.

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Chicago: "U.S. Congress, Office of the Law Revision Counsel", "§ 1121. Investigations, Studies, Records, Etc.," U.S. Code, Title 46, Shipping, Appendix in U.S. Code, Title 46, Shipping, Appendix (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2002), Original Sources, accessed January 27, 2020, http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=4L5JRRZLWDDNP1A.

MLA: "U.S. Congress, Office of the Law Revision Counsel". "§ 1121. Investigations, Studies, Records, Etc." U.S. Code, Title 46, Shipping, Appendix, in U.S. Code, Title 46, Shipping, Appendix, Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office, 2002, Original Sources. 27 Jan. 2020. www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=4L5JRRZLWDDNP1A.

Harvard: "U.S. Congress, Office of the Law Revision Counsel", '§ 1121. Investigations, Studies, Records, Etc.' in U.S. Code, Title 46, Shipping, Appendix. cited in 2002, U.S. Code, Title 46, Shipping, Appendix, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.. Original Sources, retrieved 27 January 2020, from http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=4L5JRRZLWDDNP1A.