Hawaii v. Mankichi, 190 U.S. 197 (1903)

Contents:
Author: Justice White

Show Summary

Hawaii v. Mankichi, 190 U.S. 197 (1903)

MR. JUSTICE WHITE and MR. JUSTICE McKENNA, concurring:

The Court, in its opinion, disposes of the case solely by a construction of the act of Congress. Conceding arguendo that such view is wholly adequate to decide the cause, I concur in the meaning of the act as expounded in the opinion of the court, and, in the main, with the reasoning by which that interpretation is elucidated. I prefer, however, to place my concurrence in the judgment upon an additional ground which seems to me more fundamental. That ground is this: that, as a consequence of the relation which the Hawaiian Islands occupied towards the United States, growing out of the resolution of annexation, the provisions of the Fifth and Sixth Amendments of the Constitution concerning grand and petit juries were not applicable to that territory, because, whilst the effect of the resolution of annexation was to acquire the islands and subject them to the sovereignty of the United States, neither the terms of the resolution nor the situation which arose from it served to incorporate the Hawaiian Islands into the United States, and make them an integral part thereof. In other words, in my opinion, the case is controlled by the decision in Downes v. Bidwell, 182 U.S. 244.

The resolution of Congress annexing the islands, it seems to me, makes the conclusion just stated quite clear, and manifests that it was not intended to incorporate the islands eo instanti, but, on the contrary, that the purpose was, whilst acquiring them, to leave the permanent relation which they were to bear to the government of the United States to await the subsequent determination of Congress. By the resolution, the islands were annexed, not absolutely, but merely "as a part of the Territory of the United States," and were simply declared to be subject to its sovereignty. The minutest examination of the resolution fails to disclose any provision declaring that the islands are incorporated and made a part of the United States, or endowing them with the rights which would arise from such relation. On the contrary, the resolution repels the conclusion of incorporation. Thus, it provided for the government of the islands by a commission to be appointed by the President, until Congress should have opportunity to create the government which would be deemed best. Further, it stipulated,

until legislation shall be enacted extending the United States customs laws and regulations to the Hawaiian Islands, the existing customs relations of the Hawaiian Islands with the United States and other countries shall remain unchanged.

And, if possible, to make the purpose of Congress yet clearer, the act provided that

the President shall appoint five commissioners at least two of whom shall be residents of the Hawaiian Islands, who shall, as soon as reasonably practicable, recommend to Congress such legislation concerning the Hawaiian Islands as they shall deem necessary or proper.

All these provisions, in my opinion, clearly point out that, whilst the purpose was to acquire and extend the sovereignty of the United States over the islands, it was proposed only to provide, by the resolution of annexation, a provisional government until Congress should become possessed of the information necessary to enable it to determine what should be the permanent status of the annexed territory. And the meaning of the resolution of annexation thus indicated, by its terms, is reflexly demonstrated by the act "To Provide a government for the Territory of Hawaii," approved April 30, 1900, by which the islands were undoubtedly made a part of the United States in the fullest sense and given a territorial form of government. When the two acts are put in contrast and the declarations in the later act are considered, which were not found in the earlier act, and which, it is to be presumed, were intentionally omitted from the resolution providing for annexation, I can see no reason for holding that the mere act of annexation accomplished the result which was brought about by the subsequent law containing the more comprehensive provisions.

The mere annexation not having effected the incorporation of the islands into the United States, it is not an open question that the provisions of the Constitution as to grand and petit juries were not applicable to them. Hurtado v. California, 110 U.S. 516; In re Ross, 140 U.S. 473; Bolln v. Nebraska, 176 U.S. 83, and cases cited on page 83; Maxwell v. Dow, 176 U.S. 584, and Downes v. Bidwell, 182 U.S. 244.

Nor is there anything in the provision in the act of annexation relating to the operation of the Constitution in the annexed territory which militates against the conclusions previously expressed. The text of the resolution on this subject is as follows:

The municipal legislation of the Hawaiian Islands, not enacted for the fulfillment of the treaties so extinguished and not inconsistent with this joint resolution, nor contrary to the Constitution of the United States, nor to any existing treaty of the United States, shall remain in force until the Congress of the United States shall otherwise determine.

Now, insofar as the Constitution is concerned, the clause subjecting the existing legislation which was provisionally continued to the control of the Constitution, clearly referred only to the provisions of the Constitution which were applicable, and not to those which were inapplicable. In other words, having, by the resolution itself, created a condition of things absolutely incompatible with immediate incorporation, Congress, mindful that the Constitution was the supreme law and that its applicable provisions were operative at all times, everywhere, and upon every condition and persons, declared that nothing in the joint resolution continuing the customs legislation and local law should be considered as perpetuating such laws where they were inconsistent with those fundamental provisions of the Constitution which were, by their own force, applicable to the territory with which Congress was dealing.

To say the contrary would be but to declare that Congress had provided for the continuance of the tariff and other legislation, whilst at the same time it had enacted that that result should not be brought about. It would, moreover, lead to the assumption that provisions of the Constitution which were inapplicable to the particular situation should yet govern and control that condition.

MR. JUSTICE McKENNA authorizes me to say that he also concurs in the result for the foregoing reasons.

*

Whereas, the government of the Republic of Hawaii, having in due form signified its consent in the manner provided by its constitution to cede, absolutely and without reserve, to the United States of America all rights of sovereignty of whatsoever kind in and over the Hawaiian Islands and their dependencies, and also to cede and transfer to the United States the absolute fee and ownership of all public, government, or Crown lands, public buildings or edifices, ports, harbors, military equipment, and all other public property of every kind and description belonging to the government of the Hawaiian Islands, together with every right and appurtenance thereunto appertaining: Therefore:

Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That said cession is accepted, ratified, and confirmed, and that the said Hawaiian Islands and their dependencies be, and they are hereby, annexed as a part of the Territory of the United States, and are subject to the sovereign dominion thereof, and that all and singular the property and rights hereinbefore mentioned are vested in the United States of America.

The existing laws of the United States relative to public lands shall not apply to such lands in the Hawaiian Islands, but the Congress of the United States shall enact special laws for their management and disposition: Provided, That all revenue from, or proceeds of, the same, except as regards such part thereof as may be used or occupied for the civil, military, or naval purposes of the United States, or may be assigned for the use of the local government, shall be used solely for the benefit of the inhabitants of the Hawaiian Islands, for educational and other public purposes.

Until Congress shall provide for the government of such islands, all the civil, judicial, and military powers exercised by the officers of the existing government in said islands shall be vested in such person or persons, and shall be exercised in such manner, as the President of the United States shall direct, and the President shall have power to remove said officers, and fill the vacancies so occasioned.

The existing treaties of the Hawaiian Islands with foreign nations shall forthwith cease and determine, being replaced by such treaties as may exist, or as may be hereafter concluded, between the United States and such foreign nations. The municipal legislation of the Hawaiian Islands, not enacted for the fulfillment of the treaties so extinguished, and not inconsistent with this joint resolution nor contrary to the Constitution of the United States nor to any existing treaty of the United States, shall remain in force until the Congress of the United States shall otherwise determine.

Until legislation shall be enacted extending the United States customs laws and regulations to the Hawaiian Islands, the existing customs relations of the Hawaiian Islands with the United States and other countries shall remain unchanged.

The public debt of the Republic of Hawaii, lawfully existing at the date of the passage of this joint resolution, including the amounts due to depositors in the Hawaiian Postal Savings Bank, is hereby assumed by the government of the United States; but the liability of the United States in this regard shall in no case exceed four million dollars. So long, however, as the existing government and the present commercial relations of the Hawaiian Islands are continued as hereinbefore provided, said government shall continue to pay the interest on said debt.

There shall be no further immigration of Chinese into the Hawaiian Islands, except upon such conditions as are now or may hereafter be allowed by the laws of the United States, and no Chinese, by reason of anything herein contained, shall be allowed to enter the United States from the Hawaiian Islands.

The President shall appoint five commissioners at least two of whom shall be residents of the Hawaiian Islands, who shall, as soon as reasonably practicable, recommend to Congress such legislation concerning the Hawaiian Islands as they shall deem necessary or proper.

Contents:

Related Resources

None available for this document.

Download Options


Title: Hawaii v. Mankichi, 190 U.S. 197 (1903)

Select an option:

*Note: A download may not start for up to 60 seconds.

Email Options


Title: Hawaii v. Mankichi, 190 U.S. 197 (1903)

Select an option:

Email addres:

*Note: It may take up to 60 seconds for for the email to be generated.

Chicago: White, "White, J., Concurring," Hawaii v. Mankichi, 190 U.S. 197 (1903) in 190 U.S. 197 190 U.S. 219–190 U.S. 221. Original Sources, accessed August 9, 2022, http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=4V8X6GPS9XJ75KB.

MLA: White. "White, J., Concurring." Hawaii v. Mankichi, 190 U.S. 197 (1903), in 190 U.S. 197, pp. 190 U.S. 219–190 U.S. 221. Original Sources. 9 Aug. 2022. http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=4V8X6GPS9XJ75KB.

Harvard: White, 'White, J., Concurring' in Hawaii v. Mankichi, 190 U.S. 197 (1903). cited in 1903, 190 U.S. 197, pp.190 U.S. 219–190 U.S. 221. Original Sources, retrieved 9 August 2022, from http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=4V8X6GPS9XJ75KB.