History of the American Nation by William J. Jackman, Vol. 7

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Author: William James Jackman

Minor Parties

In the foregoing text, endeavor has been made to give an outline of the history of the greater parties. The first of these, the Federal party, was, as we have seen, formed from the "Strong Government," or "Constitutional" party. It elected two presidents, i.e., Washington, who served two terms, and John Adams, who served one term. To summarize its policy: the Federal party advocated a tariff, internal revenue, the funding of the public debt, a United States bank, a militia, and the assumption of state debts by the government. This party favored England as against France; it opposed a war with England, and believed a protective tariff should be instituted. Its principal supporters were Washington, John Adams, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay. The Federal party existed from 1787 to 1816.

The Democratic-Republican party was formed from the anti-Federal party, the Republican or Jeffersonian party, and from such as called themselves Democrats and sympathized with the French Revolutionists. This party elected three presidents, each of whom, Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe, served two terms. It stood for state rights, enlarged personal freedom, France as against England, free trade (in 1800), war with England, internal improvements, the purchase of Louisiana, the purchase of Florida, the Missouri Compromise, the Monroe Doctrine, and, in 1828, a protective tariff. The party was founded and led by Thomas Jefferson. It was in existence from 1793 to 1828.

The Democratic-Republican party, in the presidential campaign of 1824, split into four parts. This was its last appearance in a presidential contest. The Democratic (and Whig) party sprang from this division. Six Democratic presidents have been elected, including Jackson, serving two terms; Van Buren, Polk, Pierce, and Buchanan, one term each, and Cleveland, two terms. The party, in its platforms from time to time, favored internal improvements; state banks; the sub-treasury plan; state rights; free trade; tariff for revenue only; the annexation of Texas; the Mexican War; the Compromise of 1850; the Monroe Doctrine; the Dred Scott decision; the Fugitive Slave Law; and economical public expenditures. They opposed the agitation of the slavery question in any form or place; the coercion of the seceded states; the amelioration of the condition of the freed negroes; the Freedmen’s Bureau; Chinese immigration; and autocratic government. The existence of the Democratic party dates from 1828.

The Republican party was formed from other parties (principally from the Whig party) on slavery issues. Six Republicans have occupied the presidential chair by election to that office, i.e., Lincoln, two terms; Grant, two terms; Hayes, Garfield, and Harrison, one term each; and McKinley, one full term and part of a second. The Republican party has, in its platforms and policy, favored the suppression of slavery; the suppression of the rebellion by all constitutional means; the emancipation of slaves; the prohibition of slavery; the citizenship of freedmen; the Monroe Doctrine; full payment of the national debt; a protective tariff; a free ballot; generous pension legislation; adequate navy and coast defence; an increased army; and a liberal colonial policy. The existence of the Republican party dates from 1854.

The history of the minor parties is given chronologically in the order of their origin.

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Chicago: William James Jackman, "Minor Parties," History of the American Nation by William J. Jackman, Vol. 7 in William J. Jackman, Jacob H. Patton, and Rossiter Johnson. History of the American Nation, 9 Vols. (Chicago: K. Gaynor, 1911), Pp.2046-2038 Original Sources, accessed February 4, 2023, http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=8FFPQ9SCUA47R62.

MLA: Jackman, William James. "Minor Parties." History of the American Nation by William J. Jackman, Vol. 7, in William J. Jackman, Jacob H. Patton, and Rossiter Johnson. History of the American Nation, 9 Vols. (Chicago: K. Gaynor, 1911), Pp.2046-2038, Original Sources. 4 Feb. 2023. http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=8FFPQ9SCUA47R62.

Harvard: Jackman, WJ, 'Minor Parties' in History of the American Nation by William J. Jackman, Vol. 7. cited in , William J. Jackman, Jacob H. Patton, and Rossiter Johnson. History of the American Nation, 9 Vols. (Chicago: K. Gaynor, 1911), Pp.2046-2038. Original Sources, retrieved 4 February 2023, from http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=8FFPQ9SCUA47R62.