North Haven Bd. Of Educ. v. Bell, 456 U.S. 512 (1982)

Author: Justice Blackmun

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North Haven Bd. Of Educ. v. Bell, 456 U.S. 512 (1982)

JUSTICE BLACKMUN delivered the opinion of the Court.

At issue here is the validity of regulations promulgated by the Department of Education pursuant to Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, Pub.L. 92-318, 86 Stat. 373, as amended, 20 U.S.C. § 1681 et seq. These regulations prohibit federally funded education programs from discriminating on the basis of gender with respect to employment.


Title IX proscribes gender discrimination in education programs or activities receiving federal financial assistance. Patterned after Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Pub.L. 88-352, 78 Stat. 252, 42 U.S.C. § 2000d et seq. (1976 ed. and Supp. IV), Title IX, as amended, contains two core provisions. The first is a "program-specific" prohibition of gender discrimination:

No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. . . .

§ 901(a), 20 U.S.C. § 1681(a). Nine statutory exceptions to § 901(a)’s coverage follow. See §§ 901(a)(1)-(9).{1}

The second core provision relates to enforcement. Section 902, 20 U.S.C. § 1682, authorizes each agency awarding federal financial assistance to any education program to promulgate regulations ensuring that aid recipients adhere to § 901(a)’s mandate. The ultimate sanction for noncompliance is termination of federal funds or denial of future grants.{2} Like § 901, § 902 is program-specific:

[S]uch termination or refusal shall be limited to the particular political entity, or part thereof, or other recipient as to whom such a finding [of noncompliance] has been made, and shall be limited in its effect to the particular program, or part thereof, in which such noncompliance has been so found. . . .{3}

In 1975, the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) invoked its § 902 authority to issue regulations governing the operation of federally funded education programs.{4} These regulations extend, for example, to policies involving admissions. textbooks, and athletics. See 34 CFR pt. 106 (1980).{5} Interpreting the term "person" in § 901(a) to encompass employees as well as students, HEW included among the regulations a series entitled "Subpart E," which deals with employment practices, ranging from job classifications to pregnancy leave. See 34 CFR §§ 106.51-106.61 (1980). Subpart E’s general introductory section provides:

No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination in employment, or recruitment, consideration, or selection therefor, whether full-time or part-time, under any education program or activity operated by a recipient which receives or benefits from Federal financial assistance.

§ 106.51(a)(1).{6}


Petitioners are two Connecticut public school boards that brought separate suits challenging HEW’s authority to issue the Subpart E regulations. Petitioners contend that Title IX was not meant to reach the employment practices of educational institutions.

A. The North Haven case. The North Haven Board of Education (North Haven) receives federal funds for its education programs and activities, and is therefore subject to Title IX’s prohibition of gender discrimination. Since the 1975-1976 school year, North Haven has devoted between 46.8% and 66.9% of its federal assistance to the salaries of its employees; this practice is expected to continue.{7}

In January, 1978, Elaine Dove, a tenured teacher in the North Haven public school system, filed a complaint with HEW, alleging that North Haven had violated Title IX by refusing to rehire her after a one-year maternity leave. In response to this complaint, HEW began to investigate the school board’s employment practices, and sought from petitioner information concerning its policies on hiring, leaves of absence, seniority, and tenure. Asserting that HEW lacked authority to regulate employment practices under Title IX, North Haven refused to comply with the request.

When HEW then notified petitioner that it was considering administrative enforcement proceedings, North Haven brought this action in the United States District Court for the District of Connecticut. The complaint sought a declaratory judgment that the Subpart E regulations exceeded the authority conferred on HEW by Title IX, and an injunction prohibiting HEW from attempting to terminate the school district’s federal funds on the basis of those regulations. The parties filed cross-motions for summary judgment, and on April 24, 1979, the District Court granted North Haven’s motion. App. to Pet. for Cert. 51A. Agreeing with petitioner that Title IX was not intended to apply to employment practices, the court invalidated the employment regulations and permanently enjoined HEW from interfering with North Haven’s federal funds because of noncompliance with those regulations.

B. The Trumbull case. The Trumbull Board of Education (Trumbull) likewise receives financial support from the Federal Government, and must therefore adhere to the requirements of Title IX and appropriate implementing regulations. In October, 1977, HEW began investigating a complaint filed by respondent Linda Potz, a former guidance counselor in the Trumbull school district. Potz alleged that Trumbull had discriminated against her on the basis of gender with respect to job assignments, working conditions, and the failure to renew her contract. In September, 1978, HEW notified Trumbull that it had violated Title IX and warned that corrective action, including respondent’s reinstatement, must be taken.

Trumbull then filed suit in the United States District Court for the District of Connecticut, contending that HEW’s Title IX employment regulations were invalid and seeking declaratory and injunctive relief. On the basis of its decision in North Haven, the District Court granted Trumbull’s motion for summary judgment on May 24, 1979. App. to Pet. for Cert. 76A.{8} The court subsequently amended the judgment, on Trumbull’s request, to include injunctive and declaratory relief similar to that ordered in North Haven’s case. Id. at 77A, 91A-92A.

C. The appeal. The two cases were consolidated on appeal, and the Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit reversed. North Haven Bd. of Ed. v. Hufstedler, 629 F.2d 773 (1980). Finding the language of § 901 inconclusive, the court examined the legislative history and concluded that the provision was intended to prohibit employment discrimination. The court also found the Subpart E regulations consistent with § 902, which the court read as directing only that "any termination of funds be limited to the particular program or programs in which noncompliance with § 901 is found. . . ." 629 F.2d at 786 (emphasis added). Section 902, the Second Circuit held, does not circumscribe HEW’s authority to issue regulations prohibiting gender discrimination in employment and does not require the Department "to specify prior to termination which particular programs receiving financial assistance are covered by its regulations." Ibid. Because HEW had not exercised its § 902 authority to terminate federal assistance to either North Haven or Trumbull, the court declined to decide whether HEW could do so in these cases. The court remanded the cases to the District Court to determine whether petitioners had violated the HEW regulations and, if so, what remedies were appropriate.

Because other federal courts have invalidated the employment regulations as unauthorized by Title IX,{9} we granted certiorari to resolve the conflict. 450 U.S. 909 (1981).



Our starting point in determining the scope of Title IX is, of course, the statutory language. See Greyhound Corp. v. Mt. Hood Stages, Inc., 437 U.S. 322, 330 (1978). Section 901(a)’s broad directive that "no person" may be discriminated against on the basis of gender appears, on its face, to include employees as well as students. Under that provision, employees, like other "persons," may not be "excluded from participation in," "denied the benefits of," or "subjected to discrimination under" education programs receiving federal financial support.

Employees who directly participate in federal programs or who directly benefit from federal grants, loans, or contracts clearly fall within the first two protective categories described in § 901(a). See Islesboro School Comm. v. Califano, 593 F.2d 424, 426 (CA1), cert. denied, 444 U.S. 972 (1979). In addition, a female employee who works in a federally funded education program is "subjected to discrimination under" that program if she is paid a lower salary for like work, given less opportunity for promotion, or forced to work under more adverse conditions than are her male colleagues. See Dougherty Cty. School System v. Harris, 622 F.2d 735, 737-738 (CA5 1980), cert. pending sub nom. Bell v. Dougherty Cty. School System, No. 80-1023.

There is no doubt that, "if we are to give [Title IX] the scope that its origins dictate, we must accord it a sweep as broad as its language." United States v. Price, 383 U.S. 787, 801 (1966); see also Griffin v. Breckenridge, 403 U.S. 88, 97 (1971); Daniel v. Paul, 395 U.S. 298, 307-308 (1969); Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co., 392 U.S. 409, 437 (1968); Piedmont & Northern R. Co. v. ICC, 286 U.S. 299, 311-312 (1932). Because § 901(a) neither expressly nor impliedly excludes employees from its reach, we should interpret the provision as covering and protecting these "persons" unless other considerations counsel to the contrary. After all, Congress easily could have substituted "student" or "beneficiary" for the word "person" if it had wished to restrict the scope of § 901(a).{10}

Petitioners, however, point to the nine exceptions to § 901(a)’s coverage set forth in §§ 901(a)(1)-(9). Seen. 1, supra. The exceptions, the school boards argue, are directed only at students, and thus indicate that § 901(a) similarly applies only to students. But the exceptions are not concerned solely with students and student activities: two of them exempt an entire class of institutions -- religious and military schools -- and are not limited to student-related activities at such schools. See §§ 901(a)(3), (4). Moreover, petitioners’ argument rests on an inference that is by no means compelled; in fact, the absence of a specific exclusion for employment among the list of exceptions tends to support the Court of Appeals’ conclusion that Title IX’s broad protection of "person[s]" does extend to employees of educational institutions. See Andrus v. Glover Construction Co., 446 U.S. 608, 616-617 (1980).{11}

Although the statutory language thus seems to favor inclusion of employees, nevertheless, because Title IX does not expressly include or exclude employees from its scope, we turn to the Act’s legislative history for evidence as to whether Congress meant somehow to limit the expansive language of § 901.{12}


In the early 1970’s, several attempts were made to enact legislation banning discrimination against women in the field of education. Although unsuccessful, these efforts included prohibitions against discriminatory employment practices.{13}

In 1972, the provisions ultimately enacted as Title IX were introduced in the Senate by Senator Bayh during debate on the Education Amendments of 1972. In addition to prohibiting gender discrimination in federally funded education programs and threatening termination of federal assistance for noncompliance, the amendment included provisions extending the coverage of Title VII and the Equal Pay Act to educational institutions. Summarizing his proposal, Senator Bayh divided it into two parts -- first, the forerunner of § 901(a), and then the extensions of Title VII and the Equal Pay Act:

Amendment No. 874 is broad, but basically it closes loopholes in existing legislation relating to general education programs and employment resulting from those programs. . . . [T]he heart of this amendment is a provision banning sex discrimination in educational programs receiving Federal funds. The amendment would cover such crucial aspects as admissions procedures, scholarships, and faculty employment, with limited exceptions. Enforcement powers include fund termination provisions -- and appropriate safeguards -- parallel to those found in title VI of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. Other important provisions in the amendment would extend the equal employment opportunities provisions of title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act to educational institutions, and extend the Equal Pay for Equal Work Act to include executive, administrative and professional women.

118 Cong.Rec. 5803 (1972) (emphasis added). The Senator’s description of § 901(a), the "heart" of his amendment, indicates that it, as well as the Title VII and Equal Pay Act provisions, was aimed at discrimination in employment.{14}

Similarly, in a prepared statement summarizing the amendment, Senator Bayh discussed the general prohibition against gender discrimination:

Central to my amendment are sections 1001-1005, which would prohibit discrimination on the basis of sex in federally funded education programs. . . .

* * * *

This portion of the amendment covers discrimination in all areas where abuse has been mentioned -- employment practices for faculty and administrators, scholarship aid, admissions, access to programs within the institution such as vocational education classes, and so forth.

118 Cong.Rec. 5807 (1972) (emphasis added).

Petitioners observe that the discussion of this portion of the amendment appears under the heading "A. Prohibition of Sex Discrimination in Federally Funded Education Programs," while the provisions involving Title VII and the Equal Pay Act are summarized under the heading "B. Prohibition of Education-Related Employment Discrimination." But we are not willing to ascribe any particular significance to these headings. The Title VII and Equal Pay Act portions of the Bayh amendment are more narrowly focused on employment discrimination than is the general ban on gender discrimination, and the headings reflect that difference. Especially in light of the explicit reference to employment practices in the description of the amendment’s general provision, however, the headings do not negate Senator Bayh’s intent that employees, as well as students, be protected by the first portion of his amendment.{15}

The final piece of evidence from the Senate debate on the Bayh amendment appears during a colloquy between Senator Bayh and Senator Pell, chairman of the Senate Subcommittee on Education and floor manager of the education bill. In response to Senator Pell’s inquiry about the scope of the sections that in large part became §§ 901(a) and (b), Senator Bayh stated:

As the Senator knows, we are dealing with three basically different types of discrimination here. We are dealing with discrimination in admission to an institution, discrimination of available services or studies within an institution once students are admitted, and discrimination in employment within an institution, as a member of a faculty or whatever.

In the area of employment, we permit no exceptions.

Id. at 5812 (emphasis added).{16}

Although the statements of one legislator made during debate may not be controlling, see, e.g., Chrysler Corp. v. Brown, 441 U.S. 281, 311 (1979), Senator Bayh’s remarks, as those of the sponsor of the language ultimately enacted, are an authoritative guide to the statute’s construction. See, e.g., FEA v. Algonquin SNG, Inc., 426 U.S. 548, 564 (1976) (such statements "deserv[e] to be accorded substantial weight . . ."); NLRB v. Fruit Packers, 377 U.S. 58, 66 (1964); Schwegman Bros. v. Calvert Distillers Corp., 341 U.S. 384, 394 395 (1951). And, because §§ 901 and 902 originated as a floor amendment, no committee report discusses the provisions; Senator Bayh’s statements -- which were made on the same day the amendment was passed, and some of which were prepared, rather than spontaneous, remarks -- are the only authoritative indications of congressional intent regarding the scope of §§ 901 and 902.

The legislative history in the House is even more sparse. H.R. 7248, 92d Cong., 1st Sess. (1971), the Higher Education Act of 1971, contained, as part of its Title X, a general prohibition against gender discrimination in federally funded education programs that was identical to the corresponding section of the Bayh amendment and to § 901(a) as ultimately enacted. But § 1004 of Title X, like § 604 of Title VI, see 42 U.S.C. § 2000d-3, provided that nothing in Title X authorized action

by any department or agency with respect to any employment practice . . . except where a primary objective of the Federal financial assistance is to provide employment.

The debate on Title X included no discussion of this limitation. See 117 Cong.Rec. 39248-39263 (1971).{17}

When the House and Senate versions of Title IX were submitted to the Conference Committee, § 1004 was deleted. The Conference Reports simply explained:

[T]he House amendment, but not the Senate amendment, provided that nothing in the title authorizes action by any department or agency with respect to any employment practice of any employer, employment agency, or labor organization except where a primary objective of the Federal financial assistance is to provide employment. The House recedes.

S.Conf.Rep. No. 9798, p. 221 (1972); H.R.Conf.Rep. No. 91085, p. 221 (1972). Expressly a conscious choice, therefore, the omission of § 1004 suggests that Congress intended that § 901 prohibit gender discrimination in employment.

Petitioners and the dissent contend, however, that § 1004 was deleted in order to avoid an inconsistency: Title IX included provisions relating to the Equal Pay Act,{18} which obviously concerned employment, and § 1004 conflicted with those portions of the Act. See Sex Discrimination Regulations: Hearings before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the House Committee on Education and Labor, 94th Cong., 1st Sess., 409 (1975) (1975 Hearings) (remarks of Rep. O’Hara) (arguing that Title IX was a "cut and paste job," using "a Xerox" of Title VI, and that § 1004 "got in through a drafting error"). As the Court of Appeals observed, however, the Conference Committee could easily have altered the wording of § 1004 to make clear that its limitation applied only to § 901,{19} or could have noted in the Conference Reports that the omission was necessitated by the apparent inconsistency. Instead, by stating that "[t]he House recedes," the Reports suggest that the Senate version of Title IX, which was intended to ban discriminatory employment practices, prevailed for substantive reasons. See Gulf Oil Corp. v. Copp Paving Co., 419 U.S. 186, 199-200 (1974) (deletion of a provision by a Conference Committee "militates against a judgment that Congress intended a result that it expressly declined to enact"); Schwegmann Bros. v. Calvert Distillers Corp., 341 U.S. at 391-392. Identical language -- "The House recedes" or "The Senate recedes" -- appears in the Conference Reports with respect to all other changes made in Title IX during the conference. See S.Conf.Rep. No. 9798, pp. 221-222 (1972). See also 118 Cong.Rec. 18437 (1972) (letters printed in the record during the Senate debate on the Conference Report which imply that employment discrimination is prohibited by § 901).

Petitioners insist additionally that a specific exclusion for employment, such as that contained in § 1004, was unnecessary to limit the scope of § 901. Pointing out that Title IX was patterned after Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the school boards contend that the addition of § 604 to Title VI was not viewed by Congress as diminishing the scope of the Act; rather, petitioners argue, it was agreed that Title VI would not prohibit employment discrimination even before § 604 made the exclusion explicit.

This focus on the history of Title VI -- urged by petitioners and adopted by the dissent -- is misplaced. It is Congress’ intention in 1972, not in 1964, that is of significance in interpreting Title IX. See Cannon v. University of Chicago, 441 U.S. 677, 710-711 (1979). The meaning and applicability of Title VI are useful guides in construing Title IX, therefore, only to the extent that the language and history of Title IX do not suggest a contrary interpretation. Moreover, whether § 604 clarified or altered the scope of Title VI,{20} it is apparent that § 601 alone was not considered adequate to exclude employees from the statute’s coverage. If Congress had intended that Title IX have the same reach as Title VI, therefore, we assume that it would have enacted counterparts to both § 601 and § 604. For although two statutes may be similar in language and objective, we must not fail to give effect to the differences between them. See Lorillard v. Pons, 434 U.S. 575, 584-585 (1978).

In our view, the legislative history thus corroborates our reading of the statutory language and verifies the Court of Appeals’ conclusion that employment discrimination comes within the prohibition of Title IX.{21}


The postenactment history of Title IX provides additional evidence of the intended scope of the Title, and confirms Congress’ desire to ban employment discrimination in federally financed education programs. Following the passage of Title IX, Senator Bayh published in the Congressional Record a summary of the final version of the bill. That description expressly distinguishes Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 with respect to employment practices:

Title VI . . . specifically excludes employment from coverage (except where the primary objective of the federal aid is to provide employment). There no similar exemption for employment in the sex discrimination provisions relating to federally assisted education programs.

118 Cong.Rec. 24684, n. 1 (1972) (first emphasis in original; second emphasis added). See also 120 Cong.Rec. 39992 (1974) (remarks of Sen. Bayh). Then, in June, 1974, HEW published proposed Title IX regulations pursuant to § 902. See 39 Fed.Reg. 22228 (1974). Included among these regulations was Subpart E, containing provisions prohibiting discriminatory employment practices in federally funded education programs. During the comment period, nearly 10,000 formal responses to the regulations were submitted, reputedly the most HEW had ever received on one of its proposals. See Salomone, Title IX and Employment Discrimination: A Wrong in Search of a Remedy, 9 J.Law & Ed. 433, 436 (1980). But not one suggested that § 901 was not meant to prohibit discriminatory employment practices. See 1975 Hearings 479 (statement of Peter E. Holmes, Director of the Office for Civil Rights).

On June 4, 1975, HEW published its final Title IX regulations, see 40 Fed.Reg. 24128 (1975), and, as required by § 431(d)(1) of the General Education Provisions Act, Pub.L. 93-380, 88 Stat. 567, as amended, 20 U.S.C. § 1232(d)(1), submitted the regulations to Congress for review. This "laying before" provision was designed to afford Congress an opportunity to examine a regulation and, if it found the regulation "inconsistent with the Act from which it derives its authority . . . ," to disapprove it in a concurrent resolution. If no such disapproval resolution was adopted within 45 days, the regulation would become effective.

Resolutions of disapproval were introduced in both Houses of Congress. The two Senate resolutions, which did not mention the employment regulations, were not acted upon.{22} In the House, the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the House Committee on Education and Labor held six days of hearings to determine whether the HEW regulations were "consistent with the law and with the intent of the Congress in enacting the law." 1975 Hearings 1 (remarks of Rep. O’Hara). One witness expressed opposition to the employment regulations, interpreting the legislative history much as petitioners have. Id. at 406-408 (statement of Janet L. Kuhn); see also Kuhn, 65 Geo.L.J. at 49. Senator Bayh testified, however, that the regulations,

as the Congress mandated, call for equality in admissions . . . and, in the case of teachers and other educational personnel, employment, pay and promotions.

1975 Hearings 169.{23} And HEW Secretary Weinberger stated that he did not see

any way you can find that employees do not participate in education programs and activities receiving Federal assistance, and, therefore, they are within the protected class. . . .

Id. at 478. See also id. at 140 (statement of Jean Simmons, President, Federation of Organizations for Professional Women); 154-155 (statement of Rep. Carr); 164 (statement of Rep. Mink); 329 (statement of Dr. Bernice Sandler, Director, Project of the Status and Education of Women, Association of American Colleges).

Following the hearings, members of the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education introduced concurrent resolutions disapproving certain portions of the HEW regulations, but not referring specifically to the employment regulations. H.R.Con.Res. 329, 94th Cong., 1st Sess. (1975); H.R.Con.Res. 330, 94th Cong., 1st Sess. (1975); see 121 Cong.Rec. 21687 (1975). Representatives Quie and Erlenborn introduced an amendment to H.R.Con.Res. 330 that explicitly sought to disapprove the employment regulations as inconsistent with Title IX. See Unpublished Amendment to H.R.Con.Res. 330, quoted in 629 F.2d at 783.{24} Neither resolution was passed, and HEW’s regulations went into effect on July 21, 1975.

Admittedly, Congress’ failure to disapprove the HEW regulations does not necessarily demonstrate that it considered those regulations valid and consistent with the legislative intent. See § 431(d)(1) of the General Education Provisions Act (as amended approximately four months after the Title IX regulations went into effect), 20 U.S.C. § 1232(d)(1). But the postenactment history of Title IX does indicate that Congress was made aware of the Department’s interpretation of the Act and of the controversy surrounding the regulations governing employment, and it lends weight to the argument that coverage of employment discrimination was intended. See Sibbach v. Wilson & Co., 312 U.S. 1, 14-16 (1941); Comment, 1976 B.Y.U.L.Rev. at 153-157. And the relatively insubstantial interest given the resolutions of disapproval that were introduced seems particularly significant, since Congress has proceeded to amend § 901 when it has disagreed with HEW’s interpretation of the statute.{25} While amending these other portions of § 901, however, Congress has not seen fit to disturb the Subpart E regulations.

In fact, Congress has refused to pass bills that would have amended § 901 to limit its coverage of employment discrimination. On the day the 45-day review period for the HEW regulations expired, Senator Helms introduced a bill that would have added a provision to Title IX stating that "[n]othing in [§ 901] shall apply to employees of any educational institution subject to this title." S. 2146, § 2(1), 94th Cong., 1st Sess. (1975); see 121 Cong.Rec. 23845-23847 (1975). No action was taken on the bill. Similarly, Senator McClure sponsored an amendment to S. 2657, 94th Cong., 2d Sess. (1976), the Education Amendments of 1976, which would have restricted the meaning of the term "educational program or activity" in § 901(a) to the "curriculum or graduation requirements of the institutions . . . " receiving federal funds. 122 Cong.Rec. 28136 (1976). Senator Bayh successfully opposed the amendment, in part on the ground that it "would exempt those areas of traditional discrimination against women that are the reason for the congressional enactment of title IX[,]" including "employment and employment benefits. . . ." Id. at 28144. The McClure amendment was rejected. Id. at 28147.

Although postenactment developments cannot be accorded

the weight of contemporary legislative history, we would be remiss if we ignored these authoritative expressions concerning the scope and purpose of Title IX. . . .

Cannon v. University of Chicago, 441 U.S. at 687, n. 7. Where

an agency’s statutory construction has been "fully brought to the attention of the public and the Congress," and the latter has not sought to alter that interpretation, although it has amended the statute in other respects, then presumably the legislative intent has been correctly discerned.

United States v. Rutherford, 442 U.S. 544, 554, n. 10 (1979), quoting Apex Hosiery Co. v. Leader, 310 U.S. 469, 489 (1940). See also Cannon v. University of Chicago, 441 U.S. at 702-703; NLRB v. Bell Aerospace Co., 416 U.S. 267, 275 (1974); United State v. Bergh, 352 U.S. 40, 46-47 (1956). These subsequent events therefore lend credence to the Court of Appeals’ interpretation of Title IX.{26}


Although we agree with the Second Circuit’s conclusion that Title IX proscribes employment discrimination in federally funded education programs, we find that the Court of Appeals paid insufficient attention to the "program-specific" nature of the statute. The court acknowledged that, under § 902, termination of funds "shall be limited in its effect to the particular program, or part thereof, in which . . . noncompliance has been . . . found," but implied that the Department’s authority to issue regulations is considerably broader. See 629 F.2d at 785-786.{27} We disagree.

It is not only Title IX’s funding termination provision that is program-specific. The portion of § 902 authorizing the issuance of implementing regulations also provides:

Each Federal department and agency which is empowered to extend Federal financial assistance to any education program or activity . . . is authorized and directed to effectuate the provisions of section 901 with respect to such program or activity by issuing rules, regulations, or orders of general applicability which shall be consistent with achievement of the objectives of the statute authorizing the financial assistance in connection with which the action is taken.

(Emphasis added.) Certainly, it makes little sense to interpret the statute, as respondents urge, to authorize an agency to promulgate rules that it cannot enforce. And § 901(a) itself has a similar program-specific focus: it forbids gender discrimination "under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. . . ."

Title IX’s legislative history corroborates its general program-specificity. Congress failed to adopt proposals that would have prohibited all discriminatory practices of an institution that receives federal funds. See 117 Cong.Rec. 30155-30157, 30408 (1971) (Sen. Bayh’s 1971 amendment); H.R. 5191, 92d Cong., 1st Sess., § 1001(b) (1971) (administration proposal); 1970 Hearings 690-691 (Dept. of Justice’s proposed alternative to § 805 of H.R. 16098); cf. Title IX, § 904 (proscribing discrimination against the blind by a recipient of federal assistance with no program-specific limitation). In contrast, Senator Bayh indicated that his 1972 amendment, which in large part was ultimately adopted, was program-specific. See 118 Cong.Rec. 5807 (1972) (observing that the amendment "prohibit[s] discrimination on the basis of sex in federally funded education programs," and that "[t]he effect of termination of funds is limited to the particular entity and program in which such noncompliance has been found. . . ."); cf. 117 Cong.Rec. 39256 (1971) (colloquies between Reps. Green and Waggoner and between Reps. Green and Steiger).

Finally, we note that language in §§ 601 and 602 of Title VI, virtually identical to that in §§ 901 and 902 and on which Title IX was modeled, has been interpreted as being program-specific. See Board of Public Instruction v. Finch, 414 F.2d 1068 (CA5 1969). We conclude, then, that an agency’s authority under Title IX both to promulgate regulations and to terminate funds is subject to the program-specific limitation of §§ 901 and 902. Cf. Cannon v. University of Chicago, 441 U.S. at 690-693.

Examining the employment regulations with this restriction in mind, we nevertheless reject petitioners’ contention that the regulations are facially invalid. Although their import is by no means unambiguous, we do not view them as inconsistent with Title IX’s program-specific character. The employment regulations do speak in general terms of an educational institution’s employment practices, but they are limited by the provision that states their general purpose:

to effectuate title IX . . . [,] which is designed to eliminate (with certain exceptions) discrimination on the basis of sex in any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. . . .

34 CFR § 106.1 (1980) (emphasis added).{28}

HEW’s comments accompanying publication of its final Title IX regulations confirm our view that Subpart E is consistent with the Act’s program-specificity.{29} The Department recognized that § 902 limited its authority to terminate funds to particular programs that were found to have violated Title IX, and it continued:

Therefore, an education program or activity or part thereof operated by a recipient of Federal financial assistance administered by the Department will be subject to the requirements of this regulation if it{30} receives or benefits from such assistance. This interpretation is consistent with the only case specifically ruling on the language contained in title VI, which holds that Federal funds may be terminated under title VI upon a finding that they "are infected by a discriminatory environment . . ." Board of Public Instruction of Taylor County, Florida v. Finch, 414 F.2d 1068, 1078-79 (5th Cir.1969).

40 Fed.Reg. 24128 (1975). By expressly adopting the Fifth Circuit opinion construing Title VI as program-specific, HEW apparently indicated its intent that the Title IX regulations be interpreted in like fashion. So read, the regulations conform with the limitations Congress enacted in §§ 901 and 902.

Whether termination of petitioners’ federal funds is permissible under Title IX is a question that must be answered by the District Court in the first instance. Similarly, we do not undertake to define "program" in this opinion. Neither of the cases before us advanced beyond a motion for summary judgment, and the record therefore does not reflect whether petitioners’ employment practices actually discriminated on the basis of gender or whether any such discrimination comes within the prohibition of Title IX. Neither school board opposed HEW’s investigation into its employment practices on the grounds that the complaining employees’ salaries were not funded by federal money, that the employees did not work in an education program that received federal assistance, or that the discrimination they allegedly suffered did not affect a federally funded program.{31} Instead, petitioners disputed the Department’s authority to regulate any employment practices whatsoever, and the District Court adopted that view, which we find to be error. Accordingly, we affirm the judgment of the Court of Appeals, but remand the case for further proceedings consistent with this opinion.

It is so ordered.

1. Section 901(a)(1) provides that, with respect to admissions, § 901(a) applies only to institutions of vocational education, professional education, and graduate higher education, and to public institutions of undergraduate higher education. Specific exceptions are made for the admissions policies of schools that begin admitting students of both sexes for the first time, § 901(a)(2); religious schools, § 901(a)(3); military schools, § 901(a)(4); the admissions policies of public institutions of undergraduate higher education that traditionally and continually have admitted students of only one gender, § 901(a)(5); social fraternities and sororities, and voluntary youth service organizations, § 901(a)(6); Boys/Girls State/Nation conferences, §901(a)(7); father-son and mother-daughter activities at educational institutions, § 901(a)(8); and scholarships awarded in "beauty" pageants by institutions of higher education, § 901(a)(9).

2. Funding may not be terminated, however, until after the agency determines that noncompliance cannot be achieved by voluntary means; the recipient is given a hearing before an administrative law judge, who makes a recommendation subject to administrative and judicial review; and a report is filed with the appropriate House and Senate committees and no action is taken on that report for 30 days. See § 902, 903; 34 CFR 106.71, 100.6-100.11, pt. 101 (1980).

3. Section 902 provides in full:

Each Federal department and agency which is empowered to extend Federal financial assistance to any education program or activity, by way of grant, loan, or contract other than a contract of insurance or guaranty, is authorized and directed to effectuate the provisions of section 901 with respect to such program or activity by issuing rules, regulations, or orders of general applicability which shall be consistent with achievement of the objectives of the statute authorizing the financial assistance in connection with which the action is taken. No such rule, regulation, or order shall become effective unless and until approved by the President. Compliance with any requirement adopted pursuant to this section may be effected (1) by the termination of or refusal to grant or to continue assistance under such program or activity to any recipient as to whom there has been an express finding on the record, after opportunity for hearing, of a failure to comply with such requirement, but such termination or refusal shall be limited to the particular political entity, or part thereof, or other recipient as to whom such a finding has been made, and shall be limited in its effect to the particular program, or part thereof, in which such noncompliance has been so found, or (2) by any other means authorized by law: Provided, however, That no such action shall be taken until the department or agency concerned has advised the appropriate person or persons of the failure to comply with the requirement and has determined that compliance cannot be secured by voluntary means. In the case of any action terminating, or refusing to grant or continue, assistance because of failure to comply with a requirement imposed pursuant to this section, the head of the Federal department or agency shall file with the committees of the House and Senate having legislative jurisdiction over the program or activity involved a full written report of the circumstances and the grounds for such action. No such action shall become effective until thirty days have elapsed after the filing of such report.

86 Stat. 374 (emphasis in original).

4. HEW’s functions under Title IX were transferred in 1979 to the Department of Education by § 301(a)(3) of the Department of Education Organization Act, Pub.L. 96-88, 93 Stat. 678, 20 U.S.C. § 3441(a)(3) (1976 ed., Supp. IV). Because many of the relevant actions in this case were taken by HEW prior to reorganization, both agencies are referred to herein as HEW.

5. The regulations initially appeared at 34 CFR pt. 86 (1972), but were recodified in connection with the establishment of the Department of Education. 46 Fed.Reg. 30802 (1980). Seen. 4, supra.

6. The Department of Agriculture also has issued regulations implementing Title IX. These include employment practices provisions that track the regulations at issue here. See 7 CFR §§ 15a.51-15a.61 (1980). In addition, the Small Business Administration has promulgated regulations prohibiting employment discrimination, which are based in part on Title IX. See 13 CFR § 113.3 (1981). See generally Comment, 129 U.Pa.L.Rev. 417, 418, nn. 7 and 8 (1980).

7. See North Haven Bd. of Ed. v. Hufstedler, 629 F.2d 773, 774-775 (CA2 1980).

8. Because the court awarded summary judgment in petitioner’s favor before respondent Potz had an opportunity to reply to Trumbull’ motion, Potz filed a motion to set aside the judgment and a cross-motion for summary judgment. On September 13, 1979, the court denied both motions, rejecting Potz’ contention that the judgment was inconsistent with this Court’s opinion in Cannon v. University of Chicago, 441 U.S. 677 (1979). App. to Pet. for Cert. 77A.

9. Four Courts of Appeals and several District Courts have so held. See Seattle University v. HEW, 621 F.2d 992 (CA9), cert. granted sub nom. United States Dept. of Ed. v. Seattle Univ., 449 U.S. 1009 (1980); Romeo Community Schools v. HEW, 600 F.2d 581 (CA6), cert. denied, 444 U.S. 972 (1979); Junior College Dist. of St. Louis v. Califano, 597 F.2d 119 (CA8), cert. denied, 444 U.S. 972 (1979); Isleboro School Comm. v. Califano, 593 F.2d 424 (CA1), cert. denied, 444 U.S. 972 (1979); Grove City College v. Harris, 500 F.Supp. 253 (WD Pa.1980), appeal pending, Nos. 80-2383, 80-2384 (CA3); Kneeland v. Bloom Township High School Dist., 484 F.Supp. 1280 (ND Ill.1980); McCarthy v. Burkholder, 448 F.Supp. 41 (Kan.1978).

But see Piascik v. Cleveland Museum of Art, 426 F.Supp. 779, 781, n. 1 (ND Ohio 1976). Cf. Dougherty Cty. School System v. Harris, 622 F.2d 735 (CA5 1980), cert. pending sub nom. Bell v. Dougherty Cty. School System, No. 80-1023. The Fifth Circuit invalidated the Subpart E regulations on the ground that they do not apply only to specific programs that receive federal financial assistance, but ruled that Title IX permits the Secretary to regulate at least some employment practices.

10. According to the dissent, the ease with which any confusion "could have been avoided by the legislative draftsman . . ." suggests that "person" should be given its ordinary meaning. Post at 551.

11. Nor does 901(b) qualify the broad language of § 901(a). Section 901(b) repeats the language identifying certain of the categories of persons listed in 901(a); it provides no clearer indication of the intended scope of 901(a) than does that section itself.

12. In construing a statute, this Court normally accords great deference to the interpretation, particularly when it is longstanding, of the agency charged with the statute’s administration. See, e.g., NLRB v. Bell Aerospace Co., 416 U.S. 267, 274-275 (1974); Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. FCC, 395 U.S. 367, 381 (1969). But the administrative interpretation of Title IX has changed, and a split has occurred between the federal agencies responsible for promulgating Title IX regulations. On July 27, 1981, respondent Bell, Secretary of Education, wrote to the Attorney General expressing his dissatisfaction with the existing Subpart E regulation and his belief that they were ultra vires. The Secretary sought to amend the regulations to make them parallel with the Department of Education regulations implementing Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. See 34 CFR pt. 100 (1980). Specifically, Secretary Bell proposed to have the regulations cover employment practices

only when the complaint shows a clear nexus between the alleged employment discrimination and discrimination against the students, or when the complaint shows that the complainant is a beneficiary of a program in which a primary objective of the Federal financial assistance is to provide employment.

Letter from Terrel H. Bell to William French Smith, reprinted in Daily Labor Report, No. 150, p. A-5 (Aug. 5, 1981). Cf. 34 CFR § 100.3(c) (1980). In response, the Attorney General, to whom the President has delegated the authority given him by § 902 to approve regulations promulgated pursuant to Title IX, refused to approve the Department’s suggestion, and continues to defend the existing regulations. See Brief for Federal Respondents 37, n. 26; Tr. of Oral Arg. 18-19.

The Department of Education has withdrawn its request to the Attorney General pending this Court’s decision in this case. See id. at 17-18. Because the Subpart E regulations therefore are still in effect, respondent Bell’s changed view does not moot the litigation. See American Textile Mfrs. Institute, Inc. v. Donovan, 452 U.S. 490, 505, n. 25 (1981). It, however, does undercut the argument that the regulations are entitled to deference as the interpretation of the agency charged with Title IX’s enforcement. See Southeastern Community College v. Davis, 442 U.S. 397, 412, n. 11 (1979).

13. Title IX grew out of hearings on gender discrimination in education, held in 1970 by a special House Subcommittee on Education chaired by Representative Green. See Discrimination Against Women: Hearings on Section 805 of H.R. 16098 before the Special Subcommittee on Education of the House Committee on Education and Labor, 91st Cong., 2d Sess. (1970) (1970 Hearings). Much of the testimony focused on discrimination against women in employment. See generally, e.g., Kuhn, Title IX: Employment and Athletics Are Outside HEW’s Jurisdiction, 65 Geo.L.J. 49, 59-60 (1976); Comment, 1976 B.Y.U.L.Rev. 133, 140-141. The proposal on which the hearings were held, however, never emerged from committee. That provision, § 805 of H.R. 16098, would have extended the prohibitions of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to discrimination based on gender by adding the word "sex" to 601; would have made Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 applicable to public school employees and education employees generally; would have amended the Civil Rights Act of 1957 to include gender discrimination within the jurisdiction of the Civil Rights Commission; and would have extended the application of the Equal Pay Act to executive, administrative, and professional employees.

Then, in 1971, Senator Bayh introduced an amendment to S. 659, 92d Cong., 1st Sess. (1971), the Education Amendments of 1971, which would have prohibited recipients of federal education funds from discriminating against women. The amendment, which Senator Bayh characterized as identical to the prohibition against discrimination on the basis of race contained in Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, plainly was meant to proscribe discrimination in employment. See 117 Cong.Rec. 30155, 30403 (1971); see also id. at 30411 (Sen. McGovern announces his intent to support Sen. Bayh’s "similar amendment" rather than introducing his own,which explicitly forbade gender discrimination in employment). The amendment never came to a vote on the floor of the Senate, however, because it was ruled nongermane. See id. at 30415.

14. Senator Bayh’s 1971 proposal, seen. 13, supra, did not include provisions amending Title VII and the Equal Pay Act. His statements that the 1971 amendment nevertheless would prohibit employment discrimination thus rebut petitioners’ contention that the Senator’s discussion of employment discrimination during debate on the 1972 version of his amendment referred solely to the provisions regarding Title VII and the Equal Pay Act.

15. The headings and corresponding divisions of Senator Bayh’s summary of his amendment do suggest, however, that the Senator’s reference to "sections 1001-1005" in describing the prohibition of discrimination in federally funded education programs is of little significance. Although, as the dissent points out, post at 548, § 1005 of the amendment comprised the Title VII provisions, the detailed discussion of the Title VII amendments in part B of the summary, the absence of any further mention of those provisions in part A’s description of Title IX, and the fact that the Title VII provisions were not limited to "federally funded education programs" indicate that the Senator’s reference to § 1005 in part A was inadvertent.

16. Moreover, in reply to Senator Pell’s questions regarding Title IX’s application to the faculty of religious and military schools, Senator Bayh made clear that such institutions were explicitly excepted from the reach of § 901(a). See 118 Cong.Rec. 5813 (1972). His response makes no sense if Senator Bayh thought that the provision was not aimed at protecting any employees; in that event, he could have answered Senator Pell’s questions simply by stating that employment discrimination was dealt with in the Title VII and Equal Pay Act portions of the amendment, rather than in § 901.

17. Portions of that debate suggest, however, that, despite § 1004, Members of the House thought that the ban on discrimination protected employees. In discussing a proposed amendment to § 1001 of the bill, the section similar to § 901(a) of Title IX, Representative Smith quoted § 1001, described it as containing the "effective provisions" of Title X and observed that the amendment

would exempt out of this title all undergraduate schools, and would leave the prohibition against sex discrimination to apply to graduate education and faculty employment and salaries.

117 Cong.Rec. 39255 (1971); see also id. at 39260 (remarks of Rep. Erlenborn); id. at 39262 (remarks of Rep. Quie). Despite the explicit exclusion of employment discrimination in § 1004, then, there was at least some feeling on the floor of the House that employment discrimination was nonetheless prohibited by the provision that would become § 901(a).

18. The proposed amendments to Title VII had been deleted because identical provisions had already been enacted as part of the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972, Pub.L. 92-261, 86 Stat. 103, 42 U.S.C. § 2000e(a).

19. The Court of Appeals suggested the following language:

"Nothing in § 901 shall apply to any employees of any educational institution subject to this title except where a primary objective of the Federal financial assistance is to provide employment."

629 F.2d at 783.

20. Petitioners oversimplify the role of § 604. Some Members of Congress did not find the language of § 601 clearly limited to a certain class of beneficiaries. See 110 Cong.Rec. 2484 (1964) (remarks of Rep. Poff); Civil Rights: Hearings on H.R. 7152 before the House Committee on Rules, 88th Cong., 2d Sess., 228 (1964) (colloquy between Rep. Avery and Rep. McCulloch); id. at 143 (remarks of Rep. Celler); id. at 197-198 (colloquy between Rep. Avery and Rep. Celler); id. at 379-380 (remarks of Rep. Poff). Section 604 was thereafter added in the Senate, as part of the Dirksen-Mansfield substitute bill; although the provision has been viewed as merely clarifying the scope of Title VI, see 110 Cong.Rec. 12714, 12720 (1964) (remarks of Sen. Humphrey); Kuhn, 65 Geo.L.J. at 53, it has also been considered a substantive change, see 110 Cong.Rec. 14219-14220 (1964) (remarks of Sen. Holland); Comment, 129 U.Pa.L.Rev. at 447 ("The employment exemption in title VI was amended onto the statute as part of a substitute written during informal bargaining between the Senate’s Democratic and Republican leadership with the intention of providing a compromise that would garner enough votes to end the ongoing filibuster").

21. Thus, we do not, as the dissent charges, "rel[y] on legislative history to add omitted words. . . ." Post at 550. Rather, we use the legislative history as a guide to interpreting the "critical words" that Congress did include in Title IX. Ibid. It is the dissent that uses the legislative history -- of a different statute -- to rewrite Title IX so as to restrict its reach.

22. Senator Laxalt introduced a resolution disapproving the regulations governing athletic programs. S.Con.Res. 52, 94th Cong., 1st Sess. (1975); see 121 Cong.Rec. 22940 (1975). Senator Helms’ resolution was a blanket disapproval of the HEW regulations, S.Con.Res. 46, 94th Cong., 1st Sess. (1975); see 121 Cong.Rec. 17300 (1975), but he did voice disapproval specifically of the employment regulations when he introduced the resolution. Id. at 17301. Senator Helms later explained that the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare had met in executive session on his resolution, but had decided not to report it to the full Senate. Id. at 23846.

23. Senator Bayh also stressed the similarity between Title IX and Title VI, see 1975 Hearings 169-171, thereby confirming that his references to Title VI during the debate on his amendment did not indicate an intent that employment discrimination be excluded from its coverage.

24. H.R.Con.Res. 330 was referred to the House Committee on Education and Labor, which in turn submitted it to its Subcommittee on Equal Opportunities. That Subcommittee held a one-day hearing on the resolution, see Hearing on House Concurrent Resolution 330 (Title IX Regulation) before the Subcommittee on Equal Opportunities of the House Committee on Education and Labor, 94th Cong., 1st Sess. (1976) (H.R. Con. Res. 330 Hearing), and then voted to recommend against passage of the resolution. Interestingly, Representative O’Hara testified at this hearing, but, despite his remarks during the hearings conducted by his own Subcommittee, see 1975 Hearings 40409, he did not challenge the employment regulations. See H.R.Con.Res. 330 Hearing 2-21, 33-34, 38.

In addition to the two concurrent resolutions mentioned in the text, Representative Martin introduced two resolutions in the House -- one broad resolution disapproving all the Title IX regulations, H.R.Con.Res. 310, 94th Cong., 1st Sess. (1975); see 121 Cong.Rec.19209 (1975), and one focusing on the sections governing athletic programs, H.R.Con.Res. 311, 94th Cong., 1st Sess. (1975); see 121 Cong.Rec.19209 (1975). Neither referred to the employment regulations. No action was taken on the Martin resolutions.

25. In 1974, Congress, by adding § 901(a)(6), excepted social fraternities and sororities and voluntary youth service organizations from the reach of § 901(a). Pub.L. 9368, § 3(a), 88 Stat. 1862. See 120 Cong.Rec. 41390-41391 (1974) (remarks of Reps. Green, Steiger, Perkins, Quie, and Ashbrook). The amendment was enacted prior to the period of regulations review, but after HEW had published for comment the Title IX regulations, including those pertaining to employment practices. Then, in 1976, Congress added three new exceptions, §§ 901(a)(7)-(9). See 122 Cong.Rec. 27979-27987 (1976) (remarks of Sens. Fannin, Dole, Thurmond, Bayh, Humphrey, and Eagleton).

26. Petitioners’ final two arguments rely on policy judgments: the school boards insist that the victims of employment discrimination have remedies other than those available under Title IX and that terminating all federal funds to an education program because of discrimination suffered by one employee will injure numerous innocent students. These policy considerations were for Congress to weigh, and we are not free to ignore the language and history of Title IX even were we to disagree with the legislative choice.

Moreover, even if alternative remedies are available and their existence is relevant, but cf. Cannon v. University of Chicago, 441 U.S. at 711; Comment, 129 U.Pa.L.Rev. at 442-446, this Court repeatedly has recognized that Congress has provided a variety of remedies, at times overlapping, to eradicate employment discrimination. See, e.g., Electrical Workers v. Robbins & Myers, Inc., 429 U.S. 229, 236-239 (1976); Johnson v. Railway Express Agency, Inc., 421 U.S. 454, 459 (1975); Alexander v. Gardner-Denver Co., 415 U.S. 36, 47-49 (1974). And petitioners do not dispute that all funds may be terminated for an education program that discriminates against only one student.

Similarly, the views of the dissent as to the competence of the drafters of Title IX, the need for the legislation, the type of procedural, remedial, and enforcement provisions that should have been included, and the language that should have been used, see post at 551-555, may be interesting, and may be the sorts of considerations that Congress should take into account in enacting legislation, but they are not relevant to the inquiry we must undertake in ascertaining legislative intent. Rather, in order to avoid the oft-criticized practice of second-guessing Congress, we must rely on the legislative history, however "truncated," post at 551, and not on our perceptions of the soundness of the legislative judgment.

27. To the extent that the Court of Appeals was suggesting only that regulations may be broadly worded, and need not be directed at specific programs -- as long as they are applied only to programs that receive federal funds -- we do not dispute the court’s conclusion. See § 902 (referring to "rules, regulations, or orders of general applicability").

28. Similarly, for example, the specific Title IX regulations governing student admissions policies -- which are indisputably covered by the statute -- are phrased generally, providing that "[n]o person shall, on the basis of sex, be denied admission, or be subjected to discrimination in admission, by any recipient. . . ." 34 CFR § 106.21(a) (1980). The reach of those regulations is likewise limited by § 106.1 to conform to Title IX’s program-specific nature. See also 45 CFR § 80.3(b)(1) (1980) (Title VI regulation providing that "[a] recipient under any program to which this part applies may not . . . [discriminate] on ground of race, color, or national origin . . .").

29. In construing regulations, the Court normally defers to the agency’s interpretation. See, e.g., INS v. Stanisic, 395 U.S. 62, 72 (1969); Udall v. Tallman, 380 U.S. 1, 16-17 (1965). Here, however, that interpretation has fluctuated from case to case, and even as this case has progressed. See Brief for Federal Respondents 46; compare 1975 Hearings 485 (testimony of HEW Secretary Weinberger), and Dougherty Cty. School System v. Harris, 622 F.2d at 737, with Brief for Federal Respondents 44-46. Accordingly, there is no consistent administrative interpretation of the Title IX regulations for us to evaluate. Cf.n. 12, supra.

30. Whether "it" refers to "recipient" or "education program or activity" is somewhat unclear, but we find the latter reading more plausible, especially given the approving citation to the Fifth Circuit’s opinion in Board of Public Instruction of Taylor County, Florida v. Finch, 414 F.2d 1068 (1969). Moreover, "a recipient of Federal financial assistance," by definition, "receives or benefits from such assistance," whereas "an education program or activity . . . operated by a recipient" may not; the subordinate clause therefore adds nothing unless "it" means "program or activity." See also 34 CFR § 106.51(a) (1980) (prohibiting gender discrimination "under any education program or activity operated by a recipient which receives or benefits from Federal financial assistance" (emphasis added)).

31. Petitioner North Haven, for example, has conceded that it uses a substantial percentage of its federal funds to pay the salaries of its employees, including teachers. See App. 6, 18-20, 21-22, 24.


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Chicago: Blackmun, "Blackmun, J., Lead Opinion," North Haven Bd. Of Educ. v. Bell, 456 U.S. 512 (1982) in 456 U.S. 512 456 U.S. 515–456 U.S. 534. Original Sources, accessed March 1, 2024,

MLA: Blackmun. "Blackmun, J., Lead Opinion." North Haven Bd. Of Educ. v. Bell, 456 U.S. 512 (1982), in 456 U.S. 512, pp. 456 U.S. 515–456 U.S. 534. Original Sources. 1 Mar. 2024.

Harvard: Blackmun, 'Blackmun, J., Lead Opinion' in North Haven Bd. Of Educ. v. Bell, 456 U.S. 512 (1982). cited in 1982, 456 U.S. 512, pp.456 U.S. 515–456 U.S. 534. Original Sources, retrieved 1 March 2024, from