U.S. Code, Title 49, Transportation

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Author: "U.S. Congress, Office of the Law Revision Counsel"

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§ 44703. Airman Certificates

     (a) General.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall issue an airman certificate to an individual when the Administrator finds, after investigation, that the individual is qualified for, and physically able to perform the duties related to, the position to be authorized by the certificate.

     (b) Contents.—(1) An airman certificate shall—

     (A) be numbered and recorded by the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration;

     (B) contain the name, address, and description of the individual to whom the certificate is issued;

     (C) contain terms the Administrator decides are necessary to ensure safety in air commerce, including terms on the duration of the certificate, periodic or special examinations, and tests of physical fitness;

     (D) specify the capacity in which the holder of the certificate may serve as an airman with respect to an aircraft; and

     (E) designate the class the certificate covers.

     (2) A certificate issued to a pilot serving in scheduled air transportation shall have the designation "airline transport pilot" of the appropriate class.

     (c) Public Information.—

     (1) In general.—Subject to paragraph (2) and notwithstanding any other provision of law, the information contained in the records of contents of any airman certificate issued under this section that is limited to an airman’s name, address, and ratings held shall be made available to the public after the 120th day following the date of the enactment of the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century.

     (2) Opportunity to withhold information.—Before making any information concerning an airman available to the public under paragraph (1), the airman shall be given an opportunity to elect that the information not be made available to the public.

     (3) Development and implementation of program.—Not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century, the Administrator shall develop and implement, in cooperation with representatives of the aviation industry, a one-time written notification to airmen to set forth the implications of making information concerning an airman available to the public under paragraph (1) and to carry out paragraph (2). The Administrator shall also provide such written notification to each individual who becomes an airman after such date of enactment.

     (d) Appeals.—(1) An individual whose application for the issuance or renewal of an airman certificate has been denied may appeal the denial to the National Transportation Safety Board, except if the individual holds a certificate that—

     (A) is suspended at the time of denial; or

     (B) was revoked within one year from the date of the denial.

     (2) The Board shall conduct a hearing on the appeal at a place convenient to the place of residence or employment of the applicant. The Board is not bound by findings of fact of the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration but is bound by all validly adopted interpretations of laws and regulations the Administrator carries out unless the Board finds an interpretation is arbitrary, capricious, or otherwise not according to law. At the end of the hearing, the Board shall decide whether the individual meets the applicable regulations and standards. The Administrator is bound by that decision.

     (e) Restrictions and Prohibitions.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may—

     (1) restrict or prohibit issuing an airman certificate to an alien; or

     (2) make issuing the certificate to an alien dependent on a reciprocal agreement with the government of a foreign country.

     (f) Controlled Substance Violations.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may not issue an airman certificate to an individual whose certificate is revoked under section 44710 of this title except—

     (1) when the Administrator decides that issuing the certificate will facilitate law enforcement efforts; and

     (2) as provided in section 44710(e)(2) of this title.

     (g) Modifications in System.—(1) The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall make modifications in the system for issuing airman certificates necessary to make the system more effective in serving the needs of pilots and officials responsible for enforcing laws related to the regulation of controlled substances (as defined in section 102 of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 (21 U.S.C. 802)). The modifications shall ensure positive and verifiable identification of each individual applying for or holding a certificate and shall address at least each of the following deficiencies in, and abuses of, the existing system:

     (A) the use of fictitious names and addresses by applicants for those certificates.

     (B) the use of stolen or fraudulent identification in applying for those certificates.

     (C) the use by an applicant of a post office box or "mail drop" as a return address to evade identification of the applicant’s address.

     (D) the use of counterfeit and stolen airman certificates by pilots.

     (E) the absence of information about physical characteristics of holders of those certificates.

     (2) The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall prescribe regulations to carry out paragraph (1) of this subsection and provide a written explanation of how the regulations address each of the deficiencies and abuses described in paragraph (1). In prescribing the regulations, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall consult with the Administrator of Drug Enforcement, the Commissioner of Customs, other law enforcement officials of the United States Government, representatives of State and local law enforcement officials, representatives of the general aviation aircraft industry, representatives of users of general aviation aircraft, and other interested persons.

(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1186; Pub. L. 106–181, title VII, § 715, Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 162.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Revised Section

Source (U.S. Code)

Source (Statutes at Large)

44703(a)     49 App.:1422(b)(1) (1st sentence, 2d sentence words before 6th comma).     Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, § 602(b)(1), 72 Stat. 776; Oct. 19, 1984, Pub. L. 98–499, § 3, 98 Stat. 2313; Aug. 26, 1992, Pub. L. 102–345, § 4, 106 Stat. 926.

     49 App.:1655(c)(1).     Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, § 6(c)(1), 80 Stat. 938; Jan. 12, 1983, Pub. L. 97–449, § 7(b), 96 Stat. 2444.

44703(b)     49 App.:1422(a) (11th–last words).     Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, § 602(a) (9th–last words), (c), 72 Stat. 776.

     49 App.:1422(b)(1) (2d sentence words after 6th comma), (c).

     49 App.:1655(c)(1).

44703(c)(1)     49 App.:1422(b)(1) (3d sentence).

44703(c)(2)     49 App.:1422(b)(1) (4th, 5th sentences, last sentence words before proviso).

     49 App.:1655(c)(1).

44703(d)     49 App.:1422(b)(1) (last sentence proviso).

     49 App.:1655(c)(1).

44703(e)     49 App.:1422(b)(2)(A), (B).     Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, § 602(b)(2)(A), (B); added Oct. 19, 1984, Pub. L. 98–499, § 3, 98 Stat. 2313; restated Nov. 18, 1988, Pub. L. 100–690, § 7204(a), 102 Stat. 4425.

44703(f)(1)     49 App.:1422(d).     Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, § 602(d); added Nov. 18, 1988, Pub. L. 100–690, § 7205(a), 102 Stat. 4426.

44703(f)(2)     49 App.:1401 (note).     Nov. 18, 1988, Pub. L. 100–690, § 7207(a) (1st sentence), (b), 102 Stat. 4427.

     In subsections (a)–(d), the word "Administrator" in section 602(a), (b)(1), and (c) of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (Public Law 85–726, 72 Stat. 776) is retained on authority of 49:106(g).

     In subsection (a), the text of 49 App.:1422(b) (1st sentence) is omitted as surplus. The words "is qualified" are substituted for "possesses proper qualifications" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "to be authorized by the certificate" are substituted for "for which the airman certificate is sought" for clarity.

     In subsection (b)(1)(C), the words "conditions, and limitations" are omitted as being included in "terms".

     In subsection (b)(1)(E), the word "designate" is substituted for "be entitled with the designation of" to eliminate unnecessary words.

     In subsection (c)(1), before clause (A), the words "may appeal . . . to" are substituted for "may file with . . . a petition for review of the Secretary of Transportation’s action" for consistency with section 1109 of the revised title. The words "the individual holds a certificate that" are substituted for "persons whose certificates" for clarity.

     In subsection (c)(2), the words "conduct a hearing on the appeal" are substituted for "thereupon assign such petition for hearing" for consistency. The words "In the conduct of such hearing and in determining whether the airman meets the pertinent rules, regulations, or standards" are omitted as surplus. The word "Administrator" is substituted for "Federal Aviation Administration" because of 49:106(b) and (g). The words "meets the applicable regulations" are substituted for "meets the pertinent rules, regulations" because "rules" and "regulations" are synonymous and for consistency in the revised title.

     In subsection (d), before clause (1), the words "in his discretion" are omitted as surplus. In clause (2), the words "the terms of" and "entered into" are omitted as surplus. The words "government of a foreign country" are substituted for "foreign governments" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

     In subsection (f)(1), before clause (A), the words "established under this chapter" and "to pilots" are omitted as surplus.

     In subsection (f)(2), the words "Not later than September 18, 1989" and "final" are omitted as obsolete. The words "Administrator of Drug Enforcement" are substituted for "Drug Enforcement Administration of the Department of Justice" because of section 5(a) of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1973 (eff. July 1, 1973, 87 Stat. 1092). The words "Commissioner of Customs" are substituted for "United States Customs Service" because of 19:2071.

References in Text

     The date of the enactment of the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), (3), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 106–181, which was approved Apr. 5, 2000.

Amendments

     2000—Subsecs. (c) to (g). Pub. L. 106–181 added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsecs. (c) to (f) as (d) to (g), respectively.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

     Amendment by Pub. L. 106–181 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1999, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106–181, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Crediting of Law Enforcement Flight Time

     Pub. L. 106–424, § 14, Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1888, provided that: "In determining whether an individual meets the aeronautical experience requirements imposed under section 44703 of title 49, United States Code, for an airman certificate or rating, the Secretary of Transportation shall take into account any time spent by that individual operating a public aircraft as defined in section 40102 of title 49, United States Code, if that aircraft is—

"(1) identifiable by category and class; and

"(2) used in law enforcement activities."

Section Referred to in Other Sections

     This section is referred to in sections 1133, 44701, 44709, 44710, 44711, 44724, 45302, 46310, 47531 of this title.

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Chicago: "U.S. Congress, Office of the Law Revision Counsel", "§ 44703. Airman Certificates," U.S. Code, Title 49, Transportation in U.S. Code, Title 49, Transportation (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2002), Original Sources, accessed April 17, 2024, http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=9HXKDLPUQTYZIXP.

MLA: "U.S. Congress, Office of the Law Revision Counsel". "§ 44703. Airman Certificates." U.S. Code, Title 49, Transportation, in U.S. Code, Title 49, Transportation, Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office, 2002, Original Sources. 17 Apr. 2024. http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=9HXKDLPUQTYZIXP.

Harvard: "U.S. Congress, Office of the Law Revision Counsel", '§ 44703. Airman Certificates' in U.S. Code, Title 49, Transportation. cited in 2002, U.S. Code, Title 49, Transportation, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.. Original Sources, retrieved 17 April 2024, from http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=9HXKDLPUQTYZIXP.