U.S. Code, Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, Appendix

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Author: "U.S. Congress, Office of the Law Revision Counsel"

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Rule 903. Subscribing Witness’ Testimony Unnecessary

     The testimony of a subscribing witness is not necessary to authenticate a writing unless required by the laws of the jurisdiction whose laws govern the validity of the writing.

(Pub. L. 93–595, § 1, Jan. 2, 1975, 88 Stat. 1945.)

Notes of Advisory Committee on Proposed Rules

     The common law required that attesting witnesses be produced or accounted for. Today the requirement has generally been abolished except with respect to documents which must be attested to be valid, e.g. wills in some states. McCormick § 188. Uniform Rule 71; California Evidence Code § 1411; Kansas Code of Civil Procedure § 60–468; New Jersey Evidence Rule 71; New York CPLR Rule 4537.

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Chicago: "U.S. Congress, Office of the Law Revision Counsel", "Rule 903. Subscribing Witness’ Testimony Unnecessary," U.S. Code, Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, Appendix in U.S. Code, Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, Appendix (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2002), Original Sources, accessed February 29, 2024, http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=DDMHY71KFU648L1.

MLA: "U.S. Congress, Office of the Law Revision Counsel". "Rule 903. Subscribing Witness’ Testimony Unnecessary." U.S. Code, Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, Appendix, in U.S. Code, Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, Appendix, Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office, 2002, Original Sources. 29 Feb. 2024. http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=DDMHY71KFU648L1.

Harvard: "U.S. Congress, Office of the Law Revision Counsel", 'Rule 903. Subscribing Witness’ Testimony Unnecessary' in U.S. Code, Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, Appendix. cited in 2002, U.S. Code, Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, Appendix, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.. Original Sources, retrieved 29 February 2024, from http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=DDMHY71KFU648L1.