U.S. Code, Title 29, Labor

Author: "U.S. Congress, Office of the Law Revision Counsel"

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141.     Short title; Congressional declaration of purpose and policy.

142.     Definitions.

143.     Saving provisions.

144.     Separability.


151.     Findings and declaration of policy.

152.     Definitions.

153.     National Labor Relations Board.

(a)     Creation, composition, appointment, and tenure; Chairman; removal of members.

(b)     Delegation of powers to members and regional directors; review and stay of actions of regional directors; quorum; seal.

(c)     Annual reports to Congress and the President.

(d)     General Counsel; appointment and tenure; powers and duties; vacancy.

154.     National Labor Relations Board; eligibility for reappointment; officers and employees; payment of expenses.

155.     National Labor Relations Board; principal office, conducting inquiries throughout country; participation in decisions or inquiries conducted by member.

156.     Rules and regulations.

157.     Right of employees as to organization, collective bargaining, etc.

158.     Unfair labor practices.

(a)     Unfair labor practices by employer.

(b)     Unfair labor practices by labor organization.

(c)     Expression of views without threat of reprisal or force or promise of benefit.

(d)     Obligation to bargain collectively.

(e)     Enforceability of contract or agreement to boycott any other employer; exception.

(f)     Agreement covering employees in the building and construction industry.

(g)     Notification of intention to strike or picket at any health care institution.

158a.     Providing facilities for operations of Federal Credit Unions.

159.     Representatives and elections.

(a)     Exclusive representatives; employees’ adjustment of grievances directly with employer.

(b)     Determination of bargaining unit by Board.

(c)     Hearings on questions affecting commerce; rules and regulations.

(d)     Petition for enforcement or review; transcript.

(e)     Secret ballot; limitation of elections.

160.     Prevention of unfair labor practices.

(a)     Powers of Board generally.

(b)     Complaint and notice of hearing; answer; court rules of evidence inapplicable.

(c)     Reduction of testimony to writing; findings and orders of Board.

(d)     Modification of findings or orders prior to filing record in court.

(e)     Petition to court for enforcement of order; proceedings; review of judgment.

(f)     Review of final order of Board on petition to court.

(g)     Institution of court proceedings as stay of Board’s order.

(h)     Jurisdiction of courts unaffected by limitations prescribed in chapter 6 of this title.

(i)     Repealed.

(j)     Injunctions.

(k)     Hearings on jurisdictional strikes.

(l)     Boycotts and strikes to force recognition of uncertified labor organizations; injunctions; notice; service of process.

(m)     Priority of cases.

161.     Investigatory powers of Board.

162.     Offenses and penalties.

163.     Right to strike preserved.

164.     Construction of provisions.

(a)     Supervisors as union members.

(b)     Agreements requiring union membership in violation of State law.

(c)     Power of Board to decline jurisdiction of labor disputes; assertion of jurisdiction by State and Territorial courts.

165.     Conflict of laws.

166.     Separability of provisions.

167.     Short title of subchapter.

168.     Validation of certificates and other Board actions.

169.     Employees with religious convictions; payment of dues and fees.


171.     Declaration of purpose and policy.

172.     Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service.

(a)     Creation; appointment of Director.

(b)     Appointment of officers and employees; expenditures for supplies, facilities, and services.

(c)     Principal and regional offices; delegation of authority by Director; annual report to Congress.

(d)     Transfer of all mediation and conciliation services to Service; effective date; pending proceedings unaffected.

173.     Functions of Service.

(a)     Settlement of disputes through conciliation and mediation.

(b)     Intervention on motion of Service or request of parties; avoidance of mediation of minor disputes.

(c)     Settlement of disputes by other means upon failure of conciliation.

(d)     Use of conciliation and mediation services as last resort.

(e)     Encouragement and support of establishment and operation of joint labor management activities conducted by committees.

(f)     Use of alternative means of dispute resolution procedures; assignment of neutrals and arbitrators.

174.     Co-equal obligations of employees, their representatives, and management to minimize labor disputes.

175.     National Labor-Management Panel; creation and composition; appointment, tenure, and compensation; duties.

175a.     Assistance to plant, area, and industrywide labor management committees.

(a)     Establishment and operation of plant, area, and industrywide committees.

(b)     Restrictions on grants, contracts, or other assistance.

(c)     Establishment of office.

(d)     Authorization of appropriations.

176.     National emergencies; appointment of board of inquiry by President; report; contents; filing with Service.

177.     Board of inquiry.

(a)     Composition.

(b)     Compensation.

(c)     Powers of discovery.

178.     Injunctions during national emergency.

(a)     Petition to district court by Attorney General on direction of President.

(b)     Inapplicability of chapter 6.

(c)     Review of orders.

179.     Injunctions during national emergency; adjustment efforts by parties during injunction period.

(a)     Assistance of Service; acceptance of Service’s proposed settlement.

(b)     Reconvening of board of inquiry; report by board; contents; secret ballot of employees by National Labor Relations Board; certification of results to Attorney General.

180.     Discharge of injunction upon certification of results of election or settlement; report to Congress.

181.     Compilation of collective bargaining agreements, etc.; use of data.

182.     Exemption of Railway Labor Act from subchapter.

183.     Conciliation of labor disputes in the health care industry.

(a)     Establishment of Boards of Inquiry; membership.

(b)     Compensation of members of Boards of Inquiry.

(c)     Maintenance of status quo.

(d)     Authorization of appropriations.


185.     Suits by and against labor organizations.

(a)     Venue, amount, and citizenship.

(b)     Responsibility for acts of agent; entity for purposes of suit; enforcement of money judgments.

(c)     Jurisdiction.

(d)     Service of process.

(e)     Determination of question of agency.

186.     Restrictions on financial transactions.

(a)     Payment or lending, etc., of money by employer or agent to employees, representatives, or labor organizations.

(b)     Request, demand, etc., for money or other thing of value.

(c)     Exceptions.

(d)     Penalties for violations.

(e)     Jurisdiction of courts.

(f)     Effective date of provisions.

(g)     Contributions to trust funds.

187.     Unlawful activities or conduct; right to sue; jurisdiction; limitations; damages.

188.     Repealed.


191 to 197. Omitted.

Chapter Referred to in Other Sections

     This chapter is referred to in sections 401, 402, 1002, 1415, 1803 of this title; title 20 section 76k; title 46 App. section 1707.


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Chicago: "U.S. Congress, Office of the Law Revision Counsel", "Chapter 7— Labor-Management Relations," U.S. Code, Title 29, Labor in U.S. Code, Title 29, Labor (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2002), Original Sources, accessed February 24, 2024, http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=DMUU6H2FJB3ULUK.

MLA: "U.S. Congress, Office of the Law Revision Counsel". "Chapter 7— Labor-Management Relations." U.S. Code, Title 29, Labor, in U.S. Code, Title 29, Labor, Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office, 2002, Original Sources. 24 Feb. 2024. http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=DMUU6H2FJB3ULUK.

Harvard: "U.S. Congress, Office of the Law Revision Counsel", 'Chapter 7— Labor-Management Relations' in U.S. Code, Title 29, Labor. cited in 2002, U.S. Code, Title 29, Labor, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.. Original Sources, retrieved 24 February 2024, from http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=DMUU6H2FJB3ULUK.