The Law

Author: Claude Frédéric Bastiat  | Date: 1850


The followers of Rousseau’s school of thought- who consider themselves far advanced, but whom I consider twenty centuries behind the times- will not agree with me on this. But universal suffrage- using the word in its strictest sense- is not one of those sacred dogmas which it is a crime to examine or doubt. In fact, serious objections may be made to universal suffrage.

In the first place, the word universal conceals a gross fallacy. For example, there are 36 million people in France. Thus, to make the right of suffrage universal, there should be 36 million voters. But the most extended system permits only 9 million people to vote. Three persons out of four are excluded. And more than this, they are excluded by the fourth. This fourth person advances the principle of incapacity as his reason for excluding the others.

Universal suffrage means, then, universal suffrage for those who are capable. But there remains this question of fact: Who is capable? Are minors, females, insane persons, and persons who have committed certain major crimes the only ones to be determined incapable?


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Chicago: Claude Frédéric Bastiat, "Who Shall Judge?," The Law Original Sources, accessed May 30, 2023,

MLA: Bastiat, Claude Frédéric. "Who Shall Judge?." The Law, Original Sources. 30 May. 2023.

Harvard: Bastiat, CF, 'Who Shall Judge?' in The Law. Original Sources, retrieved 30 May 2023, from