Criminal Psychology; a Manual for Judges, Practitioners, and Students

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Author: Hans Gustav Adolf Gross

Section 65. (A) General Considerations.

Even if we know that hunger and love are not the only things that sustain impulse, we also know the profound influence that love and all that depends upon it exercise from time immemorial on the course of events. This being generally true, the question of the influence of sex on woman is more important than that of its influence on man, for a large number of profound conditions are at work in the former which are absent in the latter. Hence, it is in no way sufficient to consider only the physiological traits of the somatic life of woman, i. e., menstruation, pregnancy, child-birth, the suckling period, and finally the climacterium. We must study also the possibly still more important psychical conditions which spring from the feminine nature and are developed by the demands of civilization and custom. We must ask what it means to character when an individual is required from the moment puberty begins, to conceal something for a few days every month; what it means when this secrecy is maintained for a long time during pregnancy, at least toward children and the younger people. Nor can it be denied that the custom which demands more self-control in women must exercise a formative influence on their natures. Our views do not permit the woman to show without great indirection whom she hates or whom she likes; nor may she indicate clearly whom she loves, nor must she appear solicitous. Everything must happen indirectly, secretly, and approximately, and if this need is inherited for centuries, it must, as a characteristic, impart a definite expression to the sex. This expression is of great importance to the criminalist; it is often enough to recall these circumstances in order to find explanation for a whole series of phenomena. What differences the modern point of view and modern tendencies will make remains to be seen. Let us now consider particular characteristics.

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Chicago: Hans Gustav Adolf Gross, "Section 65. (A) General Considerations.," Criminal Psychology; a Manual for Judges, Practitioners, and Students, trans. Macaulay, Thomas Babington Macaulay, Baron, 1800-1859 in Criminal Psychology; a Manual for Judges, Practitioners, and Students (London: Effingham Wilson, Royal Exchange, 1831), Original Sources, accessed December 3, 2022, http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=KR8ENEVPKX9F541.

MLA: Gross, Hans Gustav Adolf. "Section 65. (A) General Considerations." Criminal Psychology; a Manual for Judges, Practitioners, and Students, translted by Macaulay, Thomas Babington Macaulay, Baron, 1800-1859, in Criminal Psychology; a Manual for Judges, Practitioners, and Students, London, Effingham Wilson, Royal Exchange, 1831, Original Sources. 3 Dec. 2022. http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=KR8ENEVPKX9F541.

Harvard: Gross, HG, 'Section 65. (A) General Considerations.' in Criminal Psychology; a Manual for Judges, Practitioners, and Students, trans. . cited in 1831, Criminal Psychology; a Manual for Judges, Practitioners, and Students, Effingham Wilson, Royal Exchange, London. Original Sources, retrieved 3 December 2022, from http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=KR8ENEVPKX9F541.