U.S. Code, Title 49, Transportation

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Author: "U.S. Congress, Office of the Law Revision Counsel"

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§ 44913. Explosive Detection

     (a) Deployment and Purchase of Equipment.—(1) A deployment or purchase of explosive detection equipment under section 108.7(b)(8) or 108.20 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, or similar regulation is required only if the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration certifies that the equipment alone, or as part of an integrated system, can detect under realistic air carrier operating conditions the amounts, configurations, and types of explosive material that would likely be used to cause catastrophic damage to commercial aircraft. The Administrator shall base the certification on the results of tests conducted under protocols developed in consultation with expert scientists outside of the Administration. Those tests shall be completed not later than April 16, 1992.

     (2) Before completion of the tests described in paragraph (1) of this subsection, but not later than April 16, 1992, the Administrator may require deployment of explosive detection equipment described in paragraph (1) if the Administrator decides that deployment will enhance aviation security significantly. In making that decision, the Administrator shall consider factors such as the ability of the equipment alone, or as part of an integrated system, to detect under realistic air carrier operating conditions the amounts, configurations, and types of explosive material that would likely be used to cause catastrophic damage to commercial aircraft. The Administrator shall notify the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives of a deployment decision made under this paragraph.

     (3) Until such time as the Administrator determines that equipment certified under paragraph (1) is commercially available and has successfully completed operational testing as provided in paragraph (1), the Administrator shall facilitate the deployment of such approved commercially available explosive detection devices as the Administrator determines will enhance aviation security significantly. The Administrator shall require that equipment deployed under this paragraph be replaced by equipment certified under paragraph (1) when equipment certified under paragraph (1) becomes commercially available. The Administrator is authorized, based on operational considerations at individual airports, to waive the required installation of commercially available equipment under paragraph (1) in the interests of aviation security. The Administrator may permit the requirements of this paragraph to be met at airports by the deployment of dogs or other appropriate animals to supplement equipment for screening passengers, baggage, mail, or cargo for explosives or weapons.

     (4) This subsection does not prohibit the Administrator from purchasing or deploying explosive detection equipment described in paragraph (1) of this subsection.

     (b) Grants.—The Secretary of Transportation may provide grants to continue the Explosive Detection K-9 Team Training Program to detect explosives at airports and on aircraft.

(Pub. L. 103–272, § 1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1214; Pub. L. 104–264, title III, § 305(a), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3252; Pub. L. 104–287, § 5(9), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3389.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Revised Section

Source (U.S. Code)

Source (Statutes at Large)

44913(a)(1)     49 App.:1358c(a), (b).     Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, § 320; added Nov. 16, 1990, Pub. L. 101–604, § 108, 104 Stat. 3077.

44913(a)(2)     49 App.:1358c(c).

44913(a)(3)     49 App.:1358c(d).

44913(b)     49 App.:2225.     Sept. 3, 1982, Pub. L. 97–248, § 529, 96 Stat. 699; Dec. 30, 1987, Pub. L. 100–223, § 114, 101 Stat. 1505.

     In subsection (a), the words "after November 16, 1990" are omitted as executed. The words "The Administrator shall base the certification on" are substituted for "based on" because of the restatement.

     In subsection (b), the words "but not be limited to" are omitted as unnecessary.

Amendments

     1996—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104–287 substituted "Transportation and Infrastructure" for "Public Works and Transportation".

     Subsec. (a)(3), (4). Pub. L. 104–264 added par. (3) and redesignated former par. (3) as (4).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

     Except as otherwise specifically provided, amendment by Pub. L. 104–264 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1996, and not to be construed as affecting funds made available for a fiscal year ending before Oct. 1, 1996, see section 3 of Pub. L. 104–264, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Weapons and Explosive Detection Study

     Section 303 of Pub. L. 104–264 provided that:

     "(a) In General.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall enter into an arrangement with the Director of the National Academy of Sciences (or if the National Academy of Sciences is not available, the head of another equivalent entity) to conduct a study in accordance to this section.

     "(b) Panel of Experts.—

"(1) In general.—In carrying out a study under this section, the Director of the National Academy of Sciences (or the head of another equivalent entity) shall establish a panel (hereinafter in this section referred to as the `panel’).

"(2) Expertise.—Each member of the panel shall have expertise in weapons and explosive detection technology, security, air carrier and airport operations, or another appropriate area. The Director of the National Academy of Sciences (or the head of another equivalent entity) shall ensure that the panel has an appropriate number of representatives of the areas specified in the preceding sentence.

     "(c) Study.—The panel, in consultation with the National Science and Technology Council, representatives of appropriate Federal agencies, and appropriate members of the private sector, shall—

"(1) assess the weapons and explosive detection technologies that are available at the time of the study that are capable of being effectively deployed in commercial aviation;

"(2) determine how the technologies referred to in paragraph (1) may more effectively be used for promotion and improvement of security at airport and aviation facilities and other secured areas;

"(3) assess the cost and advisability of requiring hardened cargo containers as a way to enhance aviation security and reduce the required sensitivity of bomb detection equipment; and

"(4) on the basis of the assessments and determinations made under paragraphs (1), (2), and (3), identify the most promising technologies for the improvement of the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of weapons and explosive detection.

     "(d) Cooperation.—The National Science and Technology Council shall take such actions as may be necessary to facilitate, to the maximum extent practicable and upon request of the Director of the National Academy of Sciences (or the head of another equivalent entity), the cooperation of representatives of appropriate Federal agencies, as provided for in subsection (c), in providing the panel, for the study under this section—

"(1) expertise; and

"(2) to the extent allowable by law, resources and facilities.

     "(e) Reports.—The Director of the National Academy of Sciences (or the head of another equivalent entity) shall, pursuant to an arrangement entered into under subsection (a), submit to the Administrator such reports as the Administrator considers to be appropriate. Upon receipt of a report under this subsection, the Administrator shall submit a copy of the report to the appropriate committees of Congress.

     "(f) Authorization of Appropriations.—There are authorized to be appropriated for each of fiscal years 1997 through 2001 such sums as may be necessary to carry out this section."

Section Referred to in Other Sections

     This section is referred to in section 106 of this title; title 26 section 4261.

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Chicago: "U.S. Congress, Office of the Law Revision Counsel", "§ 44913. Explosive Detection," U.S. Code, Title 49, Transportation in U.S. Code, Title 49, Transportation (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2002), Original Sources, accessed December 6, 2022, http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=L1URBEBW3HJYF2I.

MLA: "U.S. Congress, Office of the Law Revision Counsel". "§ 44913. Explosive Detection." U.S. Code, Title 49, Transportation, in U.S. Code, Title 49, Transportation, Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office, 2002, Original Sources. 6 Dec. 2022. http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=L1URBEBW3HJYF2I.

Harvard: "U.S. Congress, Office of the Law Revision Counsel", '§ 44913. Explosive Detection' in U.S. Code, Title 49, Transportation. cited in 2002, U.S. Code, Title 49, Transportation, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.. Original Sources, retrieved 6 December 2022, from http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=L1URBEBW3HJYF2I.