Op. Cit.


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the third great class of personal names are . . . the "praise-titles" by which a person is lauded. On occasions when he garumphs (to use Lewish Carroll’s word; the Ba-ila say fumba) he shouts these titles aloud: "I am Lubabankofuntakutuzhiwa" ("a stinging plant that is not to be touched"); "I am Chaboshakutika-mafua-asekelele" ("he who gladdens by spilling that the hearthstone may rejoice"), etc. etc. They are bestowed upon a man by his fellows, or sometimes a man will boastfully entitle himself, in allusion to personal characteristics and exploits. Their use is a not very subtle form of flattering chiefs and others, when on occasion their followers hail them by these titles. We, in common with other Europeans, have had such names given to us, and as modest men have blushed when on entering a village at the head of our carriers they have shouted at the top of their voices for the edification of the inhabitants, "Here comes Shilangwamunyama-owakamu-langa-wakafwa (’he who is not to be looked at by a wild animal, for the one who looks at him falls dead’); Munene ntwizha-midimo (’the great one who greets you, not with food, but with word about his work’)" . . . "Here he is, Chitutamano (’the silent, cunning devil’); Shalumamba (’the man of wars’); Mukumbwanzala (’the one stirred to pity by the sight of hunger’); Mutubankumu (’he who is white on the forehead’); Mulumi-a-Namusa (’the husband of the mother of kindness’)," etc. etc.

Some other names we have known are worth quoting as illustrations of the kind of qualities and deeds the Ba-ila esteem in their chiefs and fellows, and also to show their powers of expression. A hunter or warrior may be entitled Chilosha or Chitikaisha ("the great spiller of blood"); Kabange-mukolabantu ("little hemp, intoxicator of men") i.e., he can overcome those far greater than himself; Mukulubala ("he who does not seek shelter, but stands in a clear space, facing the foe"); Inzokamuchile ("a snake in a bundle of wood"), i.e., dangerous; Lufungula-tunyama ("great weaner of little animals"); Kankolomwena ("the rinderpest"), i.e., destroyer of animals and men; Kawizulula ("the famine breaker"), i.e., in famine time he feeds people on the game he kills; Ikunikualumuka ("like a great log in transformation"), i.e., in ordinary times he can be handled with impunity, but on occasion he flares up like a burning log. Mungaila of Kasenga has these among other titles: Chele ("porridge"), i.e., cool on top, but hot beneath the surface; Kaambanamazwa ("he talks like a heap of demons"). Sezongo I of Nanzela was named Shimuchinka-uchinka-buleza ("the great thunderer, who thunders like Leza himself"); Tandabala-munzhilamukadi-a-kudiate ("he stretches out his legs across the road, so that a brave man may tread on them"), i.e., he is beyond being afraid of offending the bravest of men. Kakobela has the title Ibuluminabantuowakadya’ze-obukadi-kumwizhi ("roarer at men, and let him who eats with him not forget his fierceness"). Other names are Kaludimutanganinwa-owabulea ("a little roof that requires a host of men to hoist into position "), i.e., he is not easily overcome; Luvhunabantu ("savior of men"); Shikuboni ("he doesn’t see you"), i.e., takes no notice of things done against him; Chitwizhamanumbwa ("generous giver of food to the hungry"); Mwendakuseka ("he who goes about smiling"); Chozha ("the cooler-off"), i.e., like one who leaves his food to cool, he does not speak while in a temper; Katangakalula-kuluzha-matanganina, ("a sour melon which sours its fellow melons"), i.e., like a warlock who makes his friends warlocks, he is to be dreaded; Kubushandwazhi ("he rises with sickness"), i.e., he does Dot allow sickness to keep him in bed when there is anything on; Mutantabantu ("jumper on men"), i.e., he is a fierce man who fights without provocation.

To hail anyone by these names is an act of great politeness, but in regard to other names it is necessary to be circumspect.1

1Smithn/an/an/an/an/an/a and Dalen/an/an/an/an/an/a, , 1: 365–367 (The Macmillan Company. By permission).


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Chicago: "Op. Cit.," Op. Cit. in Primitive Behavior: An Introduction to the Social Sciences, ed. Thomas, William I. (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1937), Original Sources, accessed May 28, 2022, http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=NYVW7MSJ8VN43DE.

MLA: . "Op. Cit." Op. Cit., Vol. 1, in Primitive Behavior: An Introduction to the Social Sciences, edited by Thomas, William I., New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1937, Original Sources. 28 May. 2022. http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=NYVW7MSJ8VN43DE.

Harvard: , 'Op. Cit.' in Op. Cit.. cited in 1937, Primitive Behavior: An Introduction to the Social Sciences, ed. , McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York. Original Sources, retrieved 28 May 2022, from http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=NYVW7MSJ8VN43DE.