Author: Aristotle  | Date: 350 BC


Comparisons of things together should therefore be conducted in the manner prescribed. The same commonplace rules are useful also for showing that anything is simply desirable or objectionable: for we have only to subtract the excess of one thing over another. For if what is more precious be more desirable, then also what is precious is desirable; and if what is more useful be more desirable, then also what is useful is desirable. Likewise, also, in the case of other things which admit of comparisons of that kind. For in some cases in the very course of comparing the things together we at once assert also that each of them, or the one of them, is desirable, e.g. whenever we call the one good ’by nature’ and the other ’not by nature’: for clearly what is good by nature is desirable.


Related Resources


Download Options

Title: Topics

Select an option:

*Note: A download may not start for up to 60 seconds.

Email Options

Title: Topics

Select an option:

Email addres:

*Note: It may take up to 60 seconds for for the email to be generated.

Chicago: Aristotle, "4," Topics, trans. W. A. Pickard-Cambridge Original Sources, accessed February 16, 2020,

MLA: Aristotle. "4." Topics, translted by W. A. Pickard-Cambridge, Original Sources. 16 Feb. 2020.

Harvard: Aristotle, '4' in Topics, trans. . Original Sources, retrieved 16 February 2020, from