Regents of Univ. Of California v. Bakke, 438 U.S. 265 (1978)

Author: Justice Blackmun

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Regents of Univ. Of California v. Bakke, 438 U.S. 265 (1978)


I participate fully, of course, in the opinion, ante p. 324, that bears the names of my Brothers BRENNAN, WHITE, MARSHALL, and myself. I add only some general observations that hold particular significance for me, and then a few comments on equal protection.


At least until the early 1970’s, apparently only a very small number, less than 2%, of the physicians, attorneys, and medical and law students in the United States were members of what we now refer to as minority groups. In addition, approximately three-fourths of our Negro physicians were trained at only two medical schools. If ways are not found to remedy that situation, the country can never achieve its professed goal of a society that is not race-conscious.

I yield to no one in my earnest hope that the time will come when an "affirmative action" program is unnecessary and is, in truth, only a relic of the past. I would hope that we could reach this stage within a decade, at the most. But the story of Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), decided almost a quarter of a century ago, suggests that that hope is a slim one. At some time, however, beyond any period of what some would claim is only transitional inequality, the United States must and will reach a stage of maturity where action along this line is no longer necessary. Then persons will be regarded as persons, and discrimination of the type we address today will be an ugly feature of history that is instructive, but that is behind us.

The number of qualified, indeed highly qualified, applicants for admission to existing medical schools in the United States far exceeds the number of places available. Wholly apart from racial and ethnic considerations, therefore, the selection process inevitably results in the denial of admission to many qualified persons, indeed, to far more than the number of those who are granted admission. Obviously, it is a denial to the deserving. This inescapable fact is brought into sharp focus here because Allan Bakke is not himself charged with discrimination, and yet is the one who is disadvantaged, and because the Medical School of the University of California at Davis itself is not charged with historical discrimination.

One theoretical solution to the need for more minority members in higher education would be to enlarge our graduate schools. Then all who desired and were qualified could enter, and talk of discrimination would vanish. Unfortunately, this is neither feasible nor realistic. The vast resources that apparently would be required simply are not available. And the need for more professional graduates, in the strict numerical sense, perhaps has not been demonstrated at all.

There is no particular or real significance in the 84-16 division at Davis. The same theoretical, philosophical, social, legal, and constitutional considerations would necessarily apply to the case if Davis’ special admissions program had focused on any lesser number, that is, on 12 or 8 or 4 places or, indeed, on only 1.

It is somewhat ironic to have us so deeply disturbed over a program where race is an element of consciousness, and yet to be aware of the fact, as we are, that institutions of higher learning, albeit more on the undergraduate than the graduate level, have given conceded preferences up to a point to those possessed of athletic skills, to the children of alumni, to the affluent who may bestow their largess on the institutions, and to those having connections with celebrities, the famous, and the powerful.

Programs of admission to institutions of higher learning are basically a responsibility for academicians and for administrators and the specialists they employ. The judiciary, in contrast, is ill-equipped and poorly trained for this. The administration and management of educational institutions are beyond the competence of judges and are within the special competence of educators, provided always that the educators perform within legal and constitutional bounds. For me, therefore, interference by the judiciary must be the rare exception, and not the rule.


I, of course, accept the propositions that (a) Fourteenth Amendment rights are personal; (b) racial and ethnic distinctions, where they are stereotypes, are inherently suspect and call for exacting judicial scrutiny; (c) academic freedom is a special concern of the First Amendment; and (d) the Fourteenth Amendment has expanded beyond its original 1868 concept, and now is recognized to have reached a point where, as MR. JUSTICE POWELL states, ante at 293, quoting from the Court’s opinion in McDonald v. Santa Fe Trail Transp. Co., 427 U.S. 273, 296 (1976), it embraces a "broader principle."

This enlargement does not mean for me, however, that the Fourteenth Amendment has broken away from its moorings and its original intended purposes. Those original aims persist. And that, in a distinct sense, is what "affirmative action," in the face of proper facts, is all about. If this conflicts with idealistic equality, that tension is original Fourteenth Amendment tension, constitutionally conceived and constitutionally imposed, and it is part of the Amendment’s very nature until complete equality is achieved in the area. In this sense, constitutional equal protection is a shield.

I emphasize in particular that the decided cases are not easily to be brushed aside. Many, of course, are not precisely on point, but neither are they off point. Racial factors have been given consideration in the school desegregation cases, in the employment cases, in Lau v. Nichols, 414 U.S. 563 (1974), and in United Jewish Organizations v. Carey, 430 U.S. 144 (1977). To be sure, some of these may be "distinguished" on the ground that victimization was directly present. But who is to say that victimization is not present for some members of today’s minority groups, although it is of a lesser and perhaps different degree. The petitioners in United Jewish Organizations certainly complained bitterly of their reapportionment treatment, and I rather doubt that they regard the "remedy" there imposed as one that was "to improve" the group’s ability to participate, as MR. JUSTICE POWELL describes it, ante at 305. And surely. in Lau v. Nichols, we looked to ethnicity.

I am not convinced, as MR. JUSTICE POWELL seems to be, that the difference between the Davis program and the one employed by Harvard is very profound, or constitutionally significant. The line between the two is a thin and indistinct one. In each, subjective application is at work. Because of my conviction that admission programs are primarily for the educators, I am willing to accept the representation that the Harvard program is one where good faith in its administration is practiced, as well as professed. I agree that such a program, where race or ethnic background is only one of many factors, is a program better formulated than Davis’ two-track system. The cynical, of course, may say that, under a program such as Harvard’s, one may accomplish covertly what Davis concedes it does openly. I need not go that far, for, despite its two-track aspect, the Davis program, for me, is within constitutional bounds, though perhaps barely so. It is surely free of stigma, and, as in United Jewish Organizations, I am not willing to infer a constitutional violation.

It is worth noting, perhaps, that governmental preference has not been a stranger to our legal life. We see it in veterans’ preferences. We see it in the aid-to-the-handicapped programs. We see it in the progressive income tax. We see it in the Indian programs. We may excuse some of these on the ground that they have specific constitutional protection or, as with Indians, that those benefited are wards of the Government. Nevertheless, these preferences exist, and may not be ignored. And in the admissions field, as I have indicated, educational institutions have always used geography, athletic ability, anticipated financial largess, alumni pressure, and other factors of that kind.

I add these only as additional components on the edges of the central question as to which I join my Brothers BRENNAN, WHITE, and MARSHALL in our more general approach. It is gratifying to know that the Court at least finds it constitutional for an academic institution to take race and ethnic background into consideration as one factor, among many, in the administration of its admissions program. I presume that that factor always has been there, though perhaps not conceded or even admitted. It is a fact of life, however, and a part of the real world of which we are all a part. The sooner we get down the road toward accepting and being a part of the real world, and not shutting it out and away from us, the sooner will these difficulties vanish from the scene.

I suspect that it would be impossible to arrange an affirmative action program in a racially neutral way and have it successful. To ask that this be so is to demand the impossible. In order to get beyond racism, we must first take account of race. There is no other way. And in order to treat some persons equally, we must treat them differently. We cannot -- we dare not -- let the Equal Protection Clause perpetuate racial supremacy.

So the ultimate question, as it was at the beginning of this litigation, is: among the qualified, how does one choose?

A long time ago, as time is measured for this Nation, a Chief Justice, both wise and far-sighted, said:

In considering this question, then, we must never forget, that it is a constitution we are expounding.

McCulloch v. Maryland, 4 Wheat. 316, 407 (1819) (emphasis in original). In the same opinion, the Great Chief Justice further observed:

Let the end be legitimate, let it be within the scope of the constitution, and all means which are appropriate, which are plainly adapted to that end, which are not prohibited, but consist with the letter and spirit of the constitution, are constitutional.

Id. at 421. More recently, one destined to become a Justice of this Court observed:

The great generalities of the constitution have a content and a significance that vary from age to age.

B. Cardozo, The Nature of the Judicial Process 17 (1921). And an educator who became a President of the United States said:

But the Constitution of the United States is not a mere lawyers’ document: it is a vehicle of life, and its spirit is always the spirit of the age.

W. Wilson, Constitutional Government in the United States 69 (1911).

These precepts of breadth and flexibility and ever-present modernity are basic to our constitutional law. Today, again, we are expounding a Constitution. The same principles that governed McCulloch’s case in 1819 govern Bakke’s case in 1978. There can be no other answer.

1. Four Members of the Court have undertaken to announce the legal and constitutional effect of this Court’s judgment. See opinion of JUSTICES BRENNAN, WHITE, MARSHALL, and BLACKMUN, ante at 324-325. It is hardly necessary to state that only a majority can speak for the Court or determine what is the "central meaning" of any judgment of the Court.

2. The judgment first entered by the trial court read, in its entirety, as follows:


1. Defendant, the Regents of the University of California, have judgment against plaintiff, Allan Bakke, denying the mandatory injunction requested by plaintiff ordering his admission to the University of California at Davis Medical School;

2. That plaintiff is entitled to have his application for admission to the medical school considered without regard to his race or the race of any other applicant, and defendants are hereby restrained and enjoined from considering plaintiff’s race or the race of any other applicant in passing upon his application for admission;

3. Cross-defendant Allan Bakke have judgment against cross-complaint, the Regents of the University of California, declaring that the special admissions program at the University of California at Davis Medical School violates the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Article 1, Section 21 of the California Constitution, and the Federal Civil Rights Act [42 U.S.C. § 2000d];

4. That plaintiff have and recover his court costs incurred herein in the sum of $217.35.

App. to Pet. for Cert. 120a.

3. In paragraph 2, the trial court ordered that

plaintiff [Bakke] is entitled to have his application for admission to the medical school considered without regard to his race or the race of any other applicant, and defendants are hereby restrained and enjoined from considering plaintiff’s race or the race of any other applicant in passing upon his application for admission.

Seen. 2, supra, (emphasis added). The only way in which this order can be broadly read as prohibiting any use of race in the admissions process, apart from Bakke’s application, is if the final "his" refers to "any other applicant." But the consistent use of the pronoun throughout the paragraph to refer to Bakke makes such a reading entirely unpersuasive, as does the failure of the trial court to suggest that it was issuing relief to applicants who were not parties to the suit.

4. Appendix B to Application for Stay A19-A20.

5. 18 Cal.3d 34, 64, 553 P.2d 1152, 1172 (1976). The judgment of the Supreme Court of the State of California affirms only paragraph 3 of the trial court’s judgment. The Supreme Court’s judgment reads as follows:

IT IS ORDERED, ADJUDGED, AND DECREED by the Court that the judgment of the Superior Court[,] County of Yolo[,] in the above-entitled cause, is hereby affirmed insofar as it determines that the special admission program is invalid; the judgment is reversed insofar as it denies Bakke an injunction ordering that he be admitted to the University, and the trial court is directed to enter judgment ordering Bakke to be admitted. "Bakke shall recover his costs on these appeals."

6. "This Court . . . reviews judgments, not statements in opinions." Black v. Cutter Laboratories, 351 U.S. 292, 297.


From Hayburn’s Case, 2 Dall. 409, to Alma Motor Co. v. Timken-Detroit Axle Co. [, 329 U.S. 129,] and the Hatch Act case [United Public Workers v. Mitchell, 330 U.S. 75,] decided this term, this Court has followed a policy of strict necessity in disposing of constitutional issues. The earliest exemplifications, too well known for repeating the history here, arose in the Court’s refusal to render advisory opinions and in applications of the related jurisdictional policy drawn from the case and controversy limitation. U.S.Const., Art. III. . . .

The policy, however, has not been limited to jurisdictional determinations. For, in addition,

the Court [has] developed, for its own governance in the cases confessedly within its jurisdiction, a series of rules under which it has avoided passing upon a large part of all the constitutional questions pressed upon it for decision.

Thus, as those rules were listed in support of the statement quoted, constitutional issues affecting legislation will not be determined in friendly, nonadversary proceedings; in advance of the necessity of deciding them; in broader terms than are required by the precise facts to which the ruling is to be applied; if the record presents some other ground upon which the case may be disposed of; at the instance of one who fails to show that he is injured by the statute’s operation, or who has availed himself of its benefits; or if a construction of the statute is fairly possible by which the question may be avoided.

Rescue Army v. Municipal Court, 331 U.S. 549, 568-569 (footnotes omitted). See also Ashwander v. TVA, 297 U.S. 288, 346-348 (Brandeis, J., concurring).

8. The doctrine reflects both our respect for the Constitution as an enduring set of principles and the deference we owe to the Legislative and Executive Branches of Government in developing solutions to complex social problems. See A. Bickel, The Least Dangerous Branch 131 (1962).

9. Record 29.

10. H.R.Rep. No. 914, 88th Cong., 1st Sess., pt. 1, p. 18 (1963).

11. It is apparent from the legislative history that the immediate object of Title VI was to prevent federal funding of segregated facilities. See, e.g., 110 Cong.Rec. 1521 (1964) (remarks of Rep. Celler); id. at 6544 (remarks of Sen. Humphrey).

12. In McDonald v. Santa Fe Trail Transp. Co., the Court held that "Title VII prohibits racial discrimination against . . . white petitioners . . . upon the same standards as would be applicable were they Negroes. . . ." 427 U.S. at 280. Quoting from our earlier decision in Griggs v Duke Power Co., 401 U.S. 424, 431, the Court reaffirmed the principle that the statute "prohibit[s] `[d]iscriminatory preference for any [racial] group, minority or majority.’" 427 U.S. at 279 (emphasis in original).

13. See, e.g., 110 Cong.Rec. 1520 (1964) (remarks of Rep. Celler); id. at 5864 (remarks of Sen. Humphrey); id. at 6561 (remarks of Sen. Kuchel); id. at 7055 (remarks of Sen. Pastore). (Representative Celler and Senators Humphrey and Kuchel were the House and Senate floor managers for the entire Civil Rights Act, and Senator Pastore was the majority Senate floor manager for Title VI.)

14. Representative Abernethy’s comments were typical:

Title VI has been aptly described as the most harsh and unprecedented proposal contained in the bill. . . .

It is aimed toward eliminating discrimination in federally assisted programs. It contains no guideposts and no yardsticks as to what might constitute discrimination in carrying out federally aided programs and projects. . . .

* * * *

Presumably, the college would have to have a "racially balanced" staff from the dean’s office to the cafeteria. . . .

The effect of this title, if enacted into law, will interject race as a factor in every decision involving the selection of an individual. . . . The concept of "racial imbalance" would hover like a black cloud over every transaction. . . .

Id. at 1619. See also, e.g., id. at 5611-5613 (remarks of Sen. Ervin); id. at 9083 (remarks of Sen. Gore).

15. E.g., id. at 5863, 5874 (remarks of Sen. Eastland).

16. See, e.g., id. at 8364 (remarks off Sen. Proxmire) ("Taxes are collected from whites and Negroes, and they should be expended without discrimination"); id. at 7055 (remarks of Sen. Pastore) ("[Title VI] will guarantee that the money collected by colorblind tax collectors will be distributed Federal and State administrators who are equally colorblind"); and id. at 6543 (remarks of Sen. Humphrey) ("`Simple justice requires that public funds, to which all taxpayers of all races contribute, not be spent in any fashion which encourages, entrenches, subsidizes, or results in racial discrimination’") (quoting from President Kennedy’s Message to Congress, June 19, 1963).

17. See, e.g., 110 Cong.Rec. 5253 (1964) (remarks of Sen. Humphrey); and id. at 7102 (remarks of Sen. Javits). The parallel between the prohibitions of Title VI and those of the Constitution was clearest with respect to the immediate goal of the Act -- an end to federal funding of "separate but equal" facilities.


As in Monroe [v. Pape, 365 U.S. 167], we have no occasion here to

reach the constitutional question whether Congress has the power to make municipalities liable for acts of its officers that violate the civil rights of individuals.

365 U.S. at 191. For in interpreting the statute, it is not our task to consider whether Congress was mistaken in 1871 in its view of the limit of its power over municipalities; rather, we must construe the statute in light of the impressions under which Congress did, in fact, act, see Ries v. Lynskey, 452 F.2d at 175.

Moor v. County of Alameda, 411 U.S. 693, 709.

19. Both Title VI and Title VII express Congress’ belief that, in the long struggle to eliminate social prejudice and the effects of prejudice, the principle of individual equality, without regard to race or religion, was one on which there could be a "meeting of the minds" among all races and a common national purpose. See Los Angeles Dept. of Water & Power v. Manhart, 435 U.S. 702, 709 ("[T]he basic policy of the statute [Title VII] requires that we focus on fairness to individuals, rather than fairness to classes"). This same principle of individual fairness is embodied in Title VI.

The basic fairness of title VI is so clear that I find it difficult to understand why it should create any opposition. . . .

* * * *

Private prejudices, to be sure, cannot be eliminated overnight. However, there is one area where no room at all exists for private prejudices. That is the area of governmental conduct. As the first Mr. Justice Harlan said in his prophetic dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537, 559:

Our Constitution is color-blind.

So -- I say to Senators -- must be our Government. . . .

Title VI closes the gap between our purposes as a democracy and our prejudices as individuals. The cuts of prejudice need healing. The costs of prejudice need understanding. We cannot have hostility between two great parts of our people without tragic loss in our human values. . . .

Title VI offers a place for the meeting of our minds as to Federal money.

110 Cong.Rec. 7063-7064 (1964) (remarks of Sen. Pastore). Of course, one of the reasons marshaled in support of the conclusion that Title VI was "noncontroversial" was that its prohibition was already reflected in the law. See ibid. (remarks of Sen. Pell and Sen. Pastore).

20. For example, private employers now under duties imposed by Title VII were wholly free from the restraints imposed by the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments which are directed only to governmental action.

In Lau v. Nichols, 414 U.S. 563, the Government’s brief stressed that

the applicability of Title VI . . . does not depend upon the outcome of the equal protection analysis. . . . [T]he statute independently proscribes the conduct challenged by petitioners, and provides a discrete basis for injunctive relief.

Brief for United States as Amicus Curiae, O.T. 1973, No. 72-6520, p. 15. The Court, in turn, rested its decision on Title VI. MR. JUSTICE POWELL takes pains to distinguish Lau from the case at hand because the Lau decision "rested solely on the statute." Ante at 304. See also Washington v. Davis, 426 U.S. 229, 238-239; Allen v. State Board of Elections, 393 U.S. 544, 588 (Harlan, J., concurring and dissenting).

21. As explained by Senator Humphrey, § 601 expresses a principle imbedded in the constitutional and moral understanding of the times.

The purpose of title VI is to make sure that funds of the United States are not used to support racial discrimination. In many instances, the practices of segregation or discrimination, which title VI seeks to end, are unconstitutional. . . . In all cases, such discrimination is contrary to national policy, and to the moral sense of the Nation. Thus, title VI is simply designed to insure that Federal funds are spent in accordance with the Constitution and the moral sense of the Nation.

110 Cong.Rec. 6544 (1964) (emphasis added).

22. Petitioner’s attempt to rely on regulations issued by HEW for a contrary reading of the statute is unpersuasive. Where no discriminatory policy was in effect., HEW’s example of permissible "affirmative action" refers to "special recruitment policies." 45 CFR § 80.5(j) (1977). This regulation, which was adopted in 1973, sheds no light on the legality of the admissions program that excluded Bakke in this case.

23. 110 Cong.Rec. 6047 (1964) (remarks of Sen. Pastore).

24. Record 30-31.

25. See, e.g., Lau v. Nichols, supra; Bossier Parish School Board v. Lemon, 370 F.2d 847 (CA5 1967), cert. denied, 388 U.S. 911; Uzzell v. Friday, 547 F.2d 801 (CA4 1977), opinion on rehearing en banc, 558 F.2d 727, cert. pending, No. 77-635; Serna v. Portales, 499 F.2d 1147 (CA10 1974); cf. Chambers v. Omaha Public School District, 536 F.2d 222, 225 n. 2 (CA8 1976) (indicating doubt over whether a money judgment can be obtained under Title VI). Indeed, the Government’s brief in Lau v. Nichols, supra, succinctly expressed this common assumption: "It is settled that petitioners . . . have standing to enforce Section 601. . . ." Brief for United States as Amicus Curiae in Lau v. Nichols, O.T. 1973, No. 72-6520, p. 13 n. 5.

26. Supplemental Brief for United States as Amicus Curiae 24-34. The Government’s supplemental brief also suggests that there may be a difference between a private cause of action brought to end a particular discriminatory practice and such an action brought to cut off federal funds. Id. at 28-30. Section 601 is specifically addressed to personal rights, while § 602 -- the fund cutoff provision -- establishes "an elaborate mechanism for governmental enforcement by federal agencies." Supplemental Brief, supra at 28 (emphasis added). Arguably, private enforcement of this "elaborate mechanism" would not fit within the congressional scheme, see separate opinion of MR. JUSTICE WHITE, ante at 380-383. But Bakke did not seek to cut off the University’s federal funding; he sought admission to medical school. The difference between these two courses of action is clear and significant. As the Government itself states:

[T]he grant of an injunction or a declaratory judgment in a private action would not be inconsistent with the administrative program established by Section 602. . . . A declaratory judgment or injunction against future discrimination would not raise the possibility that funds would be terminated, and it would not involve bringing the forces of the Executive Branch to bear on state programs; it therefore would not implicate the concern that led to the limitations contained in Section 602.

Supplemental Brief, supra at 30 n. 25.

The notion that a private action seeking injunctive or declaratory judgment relief is inconsistent with a federal statute that authorizes termination of funds has clearly been rejected by this Court in prior cases. See Rosado v. Wyman, 397 U.S. 397, 420.

27. See 29 U.S.C. § 794 (1976 ed.) (the Rehabilitation Act of 1973) (in particular, the legislative history discussed in Lloyd v. Regional Transportation Authority, 548 F.2d 1277, 1285-1286 (CA7 1977)); 20 U.S.C. § 1617 (1976 ed.) (attorney fees under the Emergency School Aid Act); and 31 U.S.C. § 1244 (1976 ed.) (private action under the Financial Assistance Act). Of course, none of these subsequent legislative enactments is necessarily reliable evidence of Congress’ intent in 1964 in enacting Title VI, and the legislation was not intended to change the existing status of Title VI.

28. Framing the analysis in terms of the four-part Cort v. Ash test, see 422 U.S. 66, 78, it is clear that all four parts of the test are satisfied. (1) Bakke’s status as a potential beneficiary of a federally funded program definitely brings him within the "`class for whose especial benefit the statute was enacted,’" ibid. (emphasis in original). (2) A cause of action based on race discrimination has not been "traditionally relegated to state law." Ibid. (3) While a few excerpts from the voluminous legislative history suggest that Congress did not intend to create a private cause of action, see opinion of MR. JUSTICE POWELL, ante at 283 n. 18, an examination of the entire legislative history makes it clear that Congress had no intention to foreclose a private right of action. (4) There is ample evidence that Congress considered private causes of action to be consistent with, if not essential to, the legislative scheme. See, e.g., remarks of Senator Ribicoff:

We come then to the crux of the dispute -- how this right [to participate in federally funded programs without discrimination] should be protected. And even this issue becomes clear upon the most elementary analysis. If Federal funds are to be dispensed on a nondiscriminatory basis, the only possible remedies must fall into one of two categories: first, action to end discrimination; or second, action to end the payment of funds. Obviously action to end discrimination is preferable, since that reaches the objective of extending the funds on a nondiscriminatory basis. But if the discrimination persists and cannot be effectively terminated, how else can the principle of nondiscrimination be vindicated except by nonpayment of funds?

110 Cong.Rec. 7065 (1964). See also id. at 5090, 6543, 6544 (remarks of Sen. Humphrey); id. at 7103, 12719 (remarks of Sen. Javits); id. at 7062, 7063 (remarks of Sen. Pastore).

The congressional debates thus show a clear understanding that the principle embodied in § 601 involves personal federal rights that administrative procedures would not, for the most part, be able to protect. The analogy to the Voting Rights Act of 1965, 42 U.S.C. § 1973 et seq. (1970 ed. and Supp. V), is clear. Both that Act and Title VI are broadly phrased in terms of personal rights ("no person shall be denied . . ."); both Acts were drafted with broad remedial purposes in mind; and the effectiveness of both Acts would be "severely hampered" without the existence of a private remedy to supplement administrative procedures. See Allen v. State Bd. of Elections, 393 U.S. 544, 556. In Allen, of course, this Court found a private right of action under the Voting Rights Act.


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Chicago: Blackmun, "Blackmun, J., Separate Opinion," Regents of Univ. Of California v. Bakke, 438 U.S. 265 (1978) in 438 U.S. 265 438 U.S. 403–438 U.S. 408. Original Sources, accessed October 2, 2023,

MLA: Blackmun. "Blackmun, J., Separate Opinion." Regents of Univ. Of California v. Bakke, 438 U.S. 265 (1978), in 438 U.S. 265, pp. 438 U.S. 403–438 U.S. 408. Original Sources. 2 Oct. 2023.

Harvard: Blackmun, 'Blackmun, J., Separate Opinion' in Regents of Univ. Of California v. Bakke, 438 U.S. 265 (1978). cited in 1978, 438 U.S. 265, pp.438 U.S. 403–438 U.S. 408. Original Sources, retrieved 2 October 2023, from