U.S. Code, Title 31, Money and Finance

Contents:
Author: "U.S. Congress, Office of the Law Revision Counsel"

Show Summary

Title 31—Money and Finance

This title was enacted by Pub. L. 97–258, § 1, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 877

Subtitle     Sec.

I.     General     101

II.     The Budget Process     1101

III.     Financial Management     3101

IV.     Money     5101

V.     General Assistance Administration     6101

VI.     Miscellaneous     9101

Table Showing Disposition of All Sections of Former Title 31

Title 31 Former Sections

Title 31 New Sections

1     Rep.

2     701, 1101

11(a)     1105

11(b), (c)     1106

11(d)–(f)     1105

11(g) (1st–3d sentences)     1106

11(g) (last sentence)–(i) (1st sentence)     1105

11(i) (last sentence), (j)     1108

11(k)(1)     1105

11(k)(2)     1113

11 note     1105

11a     1109

11b     T. 2 § 661

11c     1110

11d     1104

12     Rep.

13     1105

14     1107

15     1108

16 (1st sentence)     501

16 (2d, 3d sentences)     502

16 (last sentence related to preparation of budgets and appropriations)     1104

16 (last sentence related to appropriations request)     1108

16a     502

16b     Rep.

16c     502

17(a) (related to employees)     521

17(a) (related to expenses)     522

17(b), (c)     Rep.

18, 18a     1111

18b     1104

18c     1112

19     1105

20     1113

21     1104

22–24     1108

25     1105

26     Rep.

27     1103

28     1114

41     702

42(a) (1st sentence words before comma)     702

42(a) (1st sentence words after comma, last sentence), (b)     703

42a     703

43 (1st par.)     703

43 (2d par. 1st, 2d, 4th, last sentences)     772

43 (2d par. 3d sentence)     779

43 (3d par.)     772

43 (last par.)     775

43a     703

43b(a)–(c)     773

43b(d), (e)     774

43b(f)     776

43b(g)     771

43b(h)     778

43b(i), (j) (less last 13 words before colon)     775

43b(j) (last 13 words before colon)     776

43b(k)     775

43b(l), (m)     776

43b(n), (o)     774

43b(p)     771

43b(q)     773

43b(r)     779

43c     777

44 (1st sentence)     711, 731, 3301, 3323, 3324, 3521, 3522, 3526, 3529, 3531, 3541, 3702, (See § 2(b) of Pub. L. 97–258)

44 (2d, last sentences)     3526

45     Rep.

46     704

46a to 48     Rep.

49     3511

49a     5120

50, 51     Rep.

51–1     702

51a, 52(a), (b)     731

52(c), (d)     711

52–1 (related to appointment, pay and assignment)     731

52–1 (related to direct)     711

52–2     732

52–3(a)–(d)     751

52–3(e)–(g)     752

52–3(h)     753

52–3(i)     754

52–3(j), (k)     753

52–3(l)     755

52–3(m)     753

52–4(a)     733

52–4(b)     731

52–5     732

52–6     735

52–7     736

52a     Rep.

52b, 52c     731

53(a) (1st sentence words before 5th comma)     712

53(a) (1st sentence words after 5th comma, last sentence)     719

53(b)     712

53(c)–(e)     719

53(f)     718

54     716

55     Rep.

56     731

57, 58     Rep.

59, 60 (1st sentence)     712

60 (last sentence)     719

61     715

65(a)–(e)     Rep.

65(f)     3511

65a     3501

65b     3521

66(a)     3511

66(b) (less Treasury Department)     3512

66(b) (related to Treasury Department)     3513

66(c)     3512

66a     3512

66b     3513

66c     3326

66d     3514

67(a)–(c)     3523

67(d)(1)–(3)     713

67(d)(4)     719

67(e)(1)–(5), (7)     714

67(e)(6)(A)     719

67(e)(6)(B)     718

67(f)     3524

68     9501

68a     9503

68b     9504

68c, 68d     9502

71 (related to accounts)     3526

71 (related to claims)     3702

71a     3702

72, 73     Rep.

74 (1st, 2d pars., last par. words after 4th comma)     3526

74 (last par. words before 4th comma)     3529

75     3521

76 (1st, last sentences)     3324

76 (2d, 3d sentences)     3323

77     3323

78     3522

79     Rep.

80–80c     3522

81     3522

82     3521

82a     3325

82a–1, 82a–2     3527

82b     3325

82b–1     3521

82c     3528

82d (words before semicolon)     3541

82d (words after semicolon)     3529

82e (related to 31:82b)     3325

82e (related to 31:82c)     3528

82e (related to 31:82d)     3529

82f (related to disbursing officers)     3325

82f (related to certifying officers)     3528

82g (related to disbursing officers)     3322

82g (related to certifying officers)     3528

82h     T. 7 § 1032a

82i     3526

82j to 82p     Rep.

83, 84     Rep.

85     T. 48 § 1469–1

86     3702

87, 88     Rep.

89–92     3531

93, 94     Rep.

95     T. 10 § 4842

95a     3527

95b (related to Army, Navy, Air Force)     T. 10 § 2777

95b (related to State Department)     T. 22 § 2668

96–102     Rep.

103     T. 10 § 2778

103a     T. 10 § 2773

103b     T. 10 § 2773

104     T. 10 § 7861

105     Rep.

106     T. 10 § 7862

107     3526

107a     Rep.

108     T. 10 § 7231

109–116     Rep.

117     711

118–121     Rep.

122     3702

123 (words before 1st proviso)     3329

123 (provisos)     3330

124 (1st par.)     3329

124 (last par.)     3330

125 (1st par.)     3329

125 (last par.)     3330

126     3329

127     321

128     3329

129–131     3712

132     3328

133     Rep.

134     3328

135     3525

141     301

142–146     Rep.

147 (less disbursement)     3301

147 (related to disbursement)     3323

148–154     Rep.

155     (See former 1003)

156     3333

157     327

161, 162     Rep.

163     329

164–166     Rep.

171     303

172, 173     Rep.

174     5144

175     5155

176     Rep.

177     5114

178, 179     Rep.

180     5141

181     5143

181 note     5142

181a     5142

181b, 181c     5141

181d, 181e     Rep.

191, 192     3713

193     9309

194     Rep.

195     3715

196–199     Rep.

200(a)     1501

200(b), (c)     1108

200(d)     1502

200(e)     1501

201, 202     Rep.

203     3727

204–206     Rep.

207     3714

208–214     Rep.

215     3723

215a     Rep.

216, 217     3723

218–224     Rep.

224a, 224a note     3725

224b, 224b note     3724 

224c to 226     Rep.

227     3728

228     Rep.

229     T. 2 § 190l

230     T. 2 § 190m

231     3729

232(A)–(E)     3730

232(F)     3731

233     3730

234     Rep.

235     3731

236, 237     3702

237a     3712

238, 238 note     3722

239     3727

240(1), (2), (4)     3701

240(3)     3721

241(a)–(d)     3721

241(e)     Rep.

241(f)     3721

242–243a     3721

243a note     3721

244     3726

251 (1st sentence words after 1st comma)     5131

251 (less 1st sentence words after 1st comma)     304

252     Rep.

253     5132

254     Rep.

261     5131

262     Rep.

263     5131

264–271     Rep.

272     5111

273 (1st, 2d sentences)     5132

273 (last sentence)     5122

274     5121

275     5111

276     5112

277     5121

278, 279     5131

280     Rep.

281     5131

282     Rep.

283 (1st sentence)     5131

283 (2d, last sentences)     5133

284–286     Rep.

287     5131

291     Rep.

292     5131

293, 294     Rep.

301–304     Rep.

311–315a     Rep.

315b     5118

316–316d     Rep.

317(a), (b)     5112

317(c)     Rep.

317a, 317b     Rep.

317c     5120

317d to 317e–1     Rep.

317f     321

318–320     Rep.

321     5112

322     5111

323     Rep.

324     5112

324a     5114

324b to 324c     5112

324d, 324e     Rep.

324f     5131

324g     Rep.

324h     5111

324i     Rep.

325     5121

326     Rep.

327–330     5121

331, 332     5122

333     Rep.

334     5122

335     5116

336–339     Rep.

340     5111

341     Rep.

342     5111

343, 344     5121

345     5111

346     5112

347     5121

348, 349     Rep.

350, 351     5113

352     Rep.

353     5111

354–356     5133

357, 358     5122

359     Rep.

360     5121

361 (1st sentence words before 1st comma)     5131

361 (1st sentence words after 1st comma, last sentence)     5132

362     5121

363     Rep.

364     5102

365     5133

366     Rep.

367, 368     5111

369     5132

370     Rep.

371     5101

372     5151

373–388o     Rep.

391(a)     5111

391(b)–(d)     5112

392     5103

393(a)     5111

393(b)     Rep.

394     5116

395, 396     5111

397     321

398(1)–(4), (6)     5112

398(5)     5113

399     5112

401, 402     5115

403     Rep.

404     5119

405, 405a     Rep.

405a–1     5116

405a–2, 405a–3     5119

405b     5117

406–408     Rep.

408a (last proviso)     5117

408a (less last proviso)     5119

408b to 412     Rep.

413–416     5114

417     Rep.

418, 418a     5114

419     5114

420     5119

421, 422     5120

423     Rep.

424     5153

425, 426     5154

427     321

428–430     Rep.

440     Rep.

441     5117

442, 443     Rep.

444 (1st sentence words between 2d and 3d semicolons)     5119

444 (less 1st sentence words between 2d and 3d semicolons)     Rep.

445, 446     Rep.

448–448e     Rep.

449     Rep.

449a     5152

449b, 449c     Rep.

451–455     Rep.

456     5103

457–462     Rep.

463, 463 note     5118

471     Rep.

472     302

473     3303

474–483     Rep.

483a     9701

483b     T. 10 § 1042

484     3302

485     Rep.

486     321

486a to 488     Rep.

488a     T. 16 § 580o–2

488b to 488b–2     Rep.

488b–3     T. 16 § 580o

488b–4     T. 16 § 580o–1

488b–5     T. 16 § 580o–3

488b–6     T. 16 § 580o–4

489     T. 40 § 485a

489a     T. 10 § 2636

490     3302

491     Rep.

492(a)     3322

492(b)–(d)     3332

492 note     3332

492–1     3321

492–2     Rep.

492a–492c     3342

492d     Rep.

493     T. 10 § 4841

493a     T. 10 § 2776

493b, 494     Rep.

495     3302

495a     Rep.

496, 497     3522

497a     3532

498     3522

499–504b     Rep.

505     3545

506, 507     3541

508     3542

509     Rep.

510–513     3542

514     3541

516     3541

517–519     3543

520     3544

521     3302

522     3304

523, 524     Rep.

525     3302

526     3327

527     3328

528(a)–(c)     3331

528(d)     321

528(e)     Rep.

528(f), (g)     3331

528(h)     Rep.

529     3324

529a     Rep.

529b     T. 19 § 2076

529c     T. 19 § 2077

529d     T. 19 § 2078

529e     T. 19 § 2079

529f     T. 19 § 2080

529g, 529h     Rep.

529i, 529j     T. 10 § 2395

530     Rep.

530a, 530b     3324

531     T. 15 § 196

532     T. 28 § 571

533     Rep.

534     T. 16 § 556d

535     T. 22 § 268b

536, 537     T. 10 § 2777

538     3526

539, 540     T. 10 § 2777

541     3526

542, 543     Rep.

544     3341

545     3302

546     Rep.

547     T. 22 § 2668a

547a     9702

548     3305

549     Rep.

550     T. 33 § 877

551, 552     1345

553     T. 42 § 3514

554     Rep.

555     T. 26 § 4986 note

561–563a     3343

564     321

571     Rep.

581     1104

581 note     1303

581a     1104

581b     1108

581c     1531

581c–1     Rep.

581d     3530

582–622     Rep.

623     1104

624–626     Rep.

627, 628     1301

628–1     1532

628–2, 628–3     T. 10 § 2779

628a     1534

629–638     Rep.

638a(a)–(c)(1)     1343

638a(c)(2) (1st, last sentences)     1344

638a(c)(2) (2d sentence)     1349

638a(d)     Rep.

638a(e)     1343

638a–1     1343

638b     T. 33 § 576a

638c     1343 note

638d, 638e     1343

638f     Elim.

639–649     Rep.

649a     T. 10 § 956 note

649b     Rep.

649c     T. 10 § 2394

650     Rep.

650a     T. 37 § 406

650b to 660     Rep.

661     T. 33 § 878

662     T. 16 § 754a

663, 663a     Rep.

664     Rep.

665(a)     1341

665(b)     1342

665(c) (less (1) (last sentence))     1512

665(c)(1) (last sentence)     1511

665(d)(1), (2) (1st–4th sentences, 6th sentence 1st–22d words)     1513

665(d)(2) (5th sentence, 6th sentence less 1st–22d words)     1511

665(d)(2) (last sentence related to spending and obligations)     1341

665(d)(2) (last sentence related to voluntary services)     1342

665(d)(2) (last sentence related to price supports)     1511

665(e)     1515

665(f)(1)     1516

665(f)(2)     1511

665(g) (1st sentence)     1513

665(g) (less 1st sentence)     1514

665(h)     1517

665(i)(1) (words before semicolon related to (a), (b))     1549

665(i)(1) (words after semicolon related to (a), (b))     1550

665(i)(1) (words before semicolon related to (h))     1518

665(i)(1) (words after semicolon related to (h))     1519

665(i)(2) (related to (a), (b))     1351

665(i)(2) (related to (h))     1517

665a     1515

665b     1502

666     T. 10 § 4541

667     Rep.

668     T. 41 § 11a

668a     1308

669 (words before semicolon)     1513

669 (words after semicolon)     1341

670     1302

671     T. 2 §§ 68–2, 95a

671a     Rep.

672, 673     1346

674–678     Rep.

679–680a     1348

681     Rep.

682     1307

683–685     Rep.

685a     1537

686(a)     1535

686(b)     1536

686(c)     1535

686–1     1535

686–2     3324

686a     Rep.

686b(a), (b), (c) (related to 31:686, 686b)     1535

686b(c) (related to 31:686)     1536

686c to 688     Rep.

689     T. 40 § 166a–1

690     Rep.

691     1346

692     T. 43 § 1470

693     T. 43 § 1471

693a     T. 28 § 524

694, 695     Rep.

696     1347

697     1533

698     T. 32 § 107

698a     T. 37 § 1012

699     T. 42 § 2459a

699a     1309

699b     T. 5 § 3101 note

700     T. 10 § 1584 note

700a, 700b     Elim.

700c     Rep.

700d     T. 38 § 203

701(a), (b)     1552

701(c) (1st sentence)     1551

701(c) (last sentence), (d)     1552

702     1553

703(a)     1554

703(b)     1556

704     Rep.

705     1552

706     1555

707     1551

708     1557

711(1)–(3)     1305

711(4)–(11)     Rep.

711(11a)–(23)     1305

712     Rep.

712a     1502

712b to 716     Rep.

717, 718     1301

719, 720     Rep.

721     1310

722     T. 2 § 30

723, 723a     T. 10 § 2661a

724     1306

724a (1st sentence)     1304

724a (last sentence)     T. 39 § 409

725     Rep.

725a to 725d     Elim.

725e     Rep.

725f     Elim.

725g     Rep.

725h     T. 24 § 21b

725i to 725k     Rep.

725l, 725m     Elim.

725n, 725o     Rep.

725p(a) (last sentence)     331

725p (less (a) (last sentence))     Rep.

725p note     1322

725p–1     1322

725q(a) (last sentence)     331

725q (less (a) (last sentence))     Rep.

725q–1     1322

725q–1a     1324

725q–2     T. 18 § 3150a

725r     1323

725s (less (a) (last sentence last proviso))     1321

725s(a) (last sentence last proviso)     1322

725s–1     T. 25 § 385a

725s–2     T. 25 § 385b

725s–3     T. 25 § 385c

725s–4     T. 18 § 4043

725t, 725u     Rep.

725v(a)     Rep.

725v(b) (related to marshals)     T. 28 § 572a

725v(b) (related to clerks)     T. 28 § 2043

725w     1503

725x to 725z     Rep.

731–733 (words before semicolon)     3123

733 (words after semicolon), 734     5116

734a to 738     Rep.

738a     3125

739     3121

740     3127

741     Rep.

741a     324

742, 742a     3124

743–751     Rep.

752 (1st–4th pars. less 2d par. form of bonds)     3102

752 (2d par. related to form of bonds)     3121

752 (last par.)     3107

752a     Rep.

753(a) (less form of notes, certificates of indebtedness, and Treasury bills)     3103

753(a) (related to form of notes, certificates of indebtedness, and Treasury bills)     3121

753(b)     Rep.

753(c)     3103

753(d) (1st sentence)     3108

753(d) (2d sentence)     3123

753(d) (last sentence related to 31:771)     3122

753(d) (last sentence less related to 31:771)     3129

754(a) (less form of certificates of indebtedness and Treasury bills, finality)     3104

754(a) (related to form of certificates of indebtedness and Treasury bills, finality)     3121

754(b)     Rep.

754(c)     T. 12 § 221

754(d)     Rep.

754a     3111

754b     3121

755–757     Rep.

757a     (See former 405b)

757b, 757b–1     3101

757b–2     Rep.

757c(a)–(d) (1st sentence)     3105

757c(d) (last sentence)     3108

757c(e)     3129

757c(f), (g)     Rep.

757c(h)     3105

757c(i) (1st–6th sentences)     3126

757c(i) (last sentence)     331

757c(j)     3105

757c–1     Rep.

757c–2(a)–(c) (1st sentence)     3106

757c–2(c) (last sentence)     3108

757c–2(d)     3106

757c–3     3109

757c–4, 757c–5     3121

757d     3128

757e     3113

757f     331

758     3108

759–761     3129

761a to 765     Rep.

766     3123

767     3112

767a     Rep.

767b     3112

768 (words before semicolon)     3123

768 (words after semicolon)     3121

769, 770     Rep.

771, 772     3122

772a     3121

773     Rep.

773a–773d     5118

774     Rep.

801–804     3110

804a to 809     Rep.

821     5301

822     5304

822a(a)–(c)     5302

822a(d)     325

822b     5117, 5119, 5304

823, 824     Rep.

841     Rep.

846     9101

847, 848     9103

849     9104

850     9105

851     9106

852     9109

856     9101

857     9105

858     9106

859     1105

866     9105

867     9107

868 (less (d) (1st sentence related to 31:867))     9108

868(d) (1st sentence related to 31:867)     9107

869(a)     9102

869(b)     Rep.

870     9107

871     Rep. See T. 40 § 33a

901–904     3113

911     5119

912, 913     Rep.

914–917     5119

931–937     Rep.

938     5303

951     3701

952(a)–(d)(3)     3711

952(d)(4)     3701

952(e)(1) (1st to 3d sentences)     3717

952(e)(1) (last sentence)     3701

952(e)(2)–(7)     3717

952(e)(8)     3701

952(f)     3718

952 note     3711

953     3711 note

954(a)–(d)     3716

954(e)     3701

955     3719

971–973     Rep.

1001     301

1002 (less words between 4th and 5th semicolons)     321

1002 (words between 4th and 5th semicolons)     331

1003     329

1004–1005a     301

1006, 1007     301

1008     Rep.

1009     301

1010 (related to seal)     301

1010 (related to books, papers, and records)     Rep.

1011     321

1012, 1013     Rep.

1014     328

1015     Rep.

1016     309

1017     321

1018     329

1019     Rep.

1020     1102

1020–1, 1020a     Rep.

1021, 1022     Rep.

1023(a)     321

1023(b)     3302

1023(c)     T. 18 § 3059

1024     321

1025     Rep.

1026     330

1027     331

1028     Rep.

1029, 1030     331

1031, 1032     326

1033     322

1034     T. 21 § 967

1035     T. 21 § 968

1036     T. 21 § 969

1037     T. 26 § 7802

1038     323

1051     5311

1052(a)–(i)     5312

1052(j)     5319

1052(k)     Rep.

1052(l)     5312

1053     321

1054(a), (b) (1st sentence)     5318

1054(b) (last sentence related to civil penalties)     5321

1054(b) (last sentence related to criminal penalties)     5322

1055     5318

1056     5321

1057     5320

1058, 1059     5322

1060     Rep.

1061     5319

1062     Rep.

1081–1083     5313

1101     5316

1102     5317

1103, 1104     5321

1105     5317

1121, 1122     5314

1141, 1142     5315

1143(a)     5321

1143(b) (words before last comma)     5320

1143(b) (words after last comma)     5321

1151, 1152(a), (b)     1112

1152(c)–(f)     1113

1153(a)–(c)     1113

1153(d)     1112

1154(a)–(c)     717

1154(d) (1st sentence)     702

1154(d) (last sentence)     731

1154(e)     719

1155(a)     702

1155(b)     719

1156     Rep.

1157     717, 719, 720, 1112

1171–1174     719

1175(a)     734

1175(b)     719

1175(c)     734

1176     720

1201     9302

1202     3530

1203, 1204     Rep.

1221     6702

1222, 1223     Rep.

1224(a)(1), (2) (related to trustee)     6703

1224(a)(2) (related to report)     6724

1224(b)     Rep.

1224(c), (d), (e)     6703

1225(a), (b)     6707

1225(c)     Rep.

1226(a)(1)(A)     6705

1226(a)(1)(B)     6707

1226(a)(2)     6705

1226(b)     6706

1226(c)     Rep.

1227(a), (b)(1)     6708

1227(b)(2), (3)     6709

1227(b)(4)     6708

1227(b)(5)     6709

1227(b)(6), (7)     6712

1227(c)     6711

1227(d)     6701

1227(e)     6710

1228(a)(1)     6713

1228(a)(2)     6707

1228(a)(3)     6701

1228(a)(4)     6707

1228(a)(5)     6702

1228(a)(6)     6712

1228(a)(7)     6713

1228(b)     6707

1228(c)(1)     6707

1228(c)(2)(A)     6701

1228(c)(2)(B)     6707

1228(d)     6708

1228(e)     6709

1228(f)(1)     6707

1228(f)(2)     6708

1228(f)(3), (last sentence)     6709

1228(g)     6707

1228(h)     6713

1241(a)     6724

1241(b), (c)     6714

1241(d)     6724

1241(e)     6714, 6724

1241(f)     6724

1241(g)     6714

1242(a)     6716

1242(b)(1)–(3)(B) (1st sentence)     6717

1242(b)(3)(B) (2d sentence)     6718

1242(b)(3)(B) (last sentence)     6717

1242(b)(3)(C)     6718

1242(b)(3)(D), (E)     6717

1242(c)(1)     6701

1242(c)(2), (3) (related to proceedings)     6717

1242(c)(3) (related to suspensions and terminations)     6718

1242(c)(4)     6701

1242(d)     6719

1242(e), (f)     6718

1242(g)     6720

1242(h)     6716

1243(a), (b)     6704

1243(c)     6723

1243(d)     6715

1243 note     7301–7305

1244     6721

1245     6723

1261(a)     6703, 6724

1261(b)(1)–(7)     Rep.

1261(b)(8)     6701

1261(c)     6701

1262(a)     321

1262(b)     Rep.

1263     6722

1264     6713

1265     Rep.

1301     T. 2 § 621

1302     T. 2 § 622

1303     T. 2 § 623

1321     T. 2 § 631

1322     T. 2 § 632

1323     T. 2 § 633

1324     T. 2 § 634

1325     T. 2 § 635

1326     T. 2 § 636

1327     T. 2 § 637

1328     T. 2 § 638

1329     T. 2 § 639

1330     T. 2 § 640

1331     T. 2 § 641

1332     T. 2 § 642

1351     T. 2 § 651

1352     T. 2 § 652

1353     T. 2 § 653

1400     T. 2 § 681

1401     T. 2 § 682

1402     T. 2 § 683

1403     T. 2 § 684

1404     T. 2 § 685

1405     T. 2 § 686

1406     T. 2 § 687

1407     T. 2 § 688

1501–1510     Rep.

1521–1531     Elim.

1601     6902

1602     6903

1603     6904

1604     6903

1605     6902

1606     6901

1607     6906

1701     6101

1702     Rep.

1703     6102

1704(a)–(c)     6103

1704(d), (e)     6102

1705     6104

1706     Rep.

1707     6105

1801(a)(1)     3902

1801(a)(2)     3903

1801(b)–(d)     3902

1802     3904

1803     3906

1804     3905

1805–1806     3901

Enacting Clause

     Section 1 of Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 877, provided in part that: "Certain general and permanent laws of the United States, related to money and finance, are revised, codified, and enacted as title 31, United States Code, `Money and Finance’. . . ."

Legislative Purpose; Inconsistent Provisions

     Section 4(a) of Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, provided that: "Sections 1–3 of this Act restate, without substantive change, laws enacted before April 16, 1982, that were replaced by those sections. Those sections may not be construed as making a substantive change in the laws replaced. Laws enacted after April 15, 1982, that are inconsistent with this Act supersede this Act to the extent of the inconsistency."

References to Other Laws

     Section 4(b) of Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, provided that: "A reference to a law replaced by sections 1–3 of this Act, including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law, is deemed to refer to the corresponding provision enacted by this Act."

Outstanding Orders, Rules, and Regulations

     Section 4(c) of Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, provided that: "An order, rule, or regulation in effect under a law replaced by sections 1–3 of this Act continues in effect under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act until repealed, amended, or superseded."

Savings Provision

     Section 4(d) of Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, provided that: "An action taken or an offense committed under a law replaced by sections 1–3 of this Act is deemed to have been taken or committed under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act."

Legislative Construction

     Section 4(e) of Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, provided that: "An inference of a legislative construction is not to be drawn by reason of the location in the United States Code of a provision enacted by this Act or by reason of the caption or catchline of the provision."

Severability

     Section 4(f) of Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 877, provided that: "If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid, all valid provisions that are severable from the invalid provision remain in effect. If a provision of this Act is held invalid in any of its applications, the provision remains valid for all valid applications that are severable from any of the invalid applications."

Repeals

     Section 6(a) of Pub. L. 98–216, Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 7, provided that: "The repeal of a law enacted by this Act may not be construed as a legislative inference that the provision was or was not in effect before its repeal."

     Section 6(b) of Pub. L. 98–216, Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 7, repealed specified laws, except for rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, and proceedings that were begun before Feb. 14, 1984.

     Section 4(a) of Pub. L. 97–452, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2479, provided that: "The repeal of a law enacted by this Act may not be construed as a legislative inference that the provision was or was not in effect before its repeal."

     Section 4(b) of Pub. L. 97–452, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2480, repealed specified laws, except for rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, and proceedings that were begun before Jan. 12, 1983.

     Section 5(a) of Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1068, provided that: "The repeal of a law by this Act may not be construed as a legislative inference that the provision was or was not in effect before its repeal."

     Section 5(b) of Pub. L. 97–258, Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1068, repealed the sections or parts thereof of the Revised Statutes or Statutes at Large codified in this title, except for rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, and proceedings that were begun before Sept. 13, 1982.

Improvement of United States Code by Pub. L. 98–216; Legislative Purpose; Inconsistent Provisions; Corresponding Provisions; Savings and Separability of Provisions

     Pub. L. 98–216, § 5, Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 7, provided that:

     "(a) Sections 1–4 of this Act restate, without substantive change, laws enacted before April 1, 1983, that were replaced by those sections. Sections 1–4 may not be construed as making a substantive change in the laws replaced. Laws enacted after March 31, 1983, that are inconsistent with this Act supersede this Act to the extent of the inconsistency.

     "(b) A reference to a law replaced by sections 1–4 of this Act, including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law, is deemed to refer to the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

     "(c) An order, rule, or regulation in effect under a law replaced by sections 1–4 of this Act continues in effect under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act until repealed, amended, or superseded.

     "(d) An action taken or an offense committed under a law replaced by sections 1–4 of this Act is deemed to have been taken or committed under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

     "(e) An inference of a legislative construction is not to be drawn by reason of the location in the United States Code of a provision enacted by this Act or by reason of the caption or catchline of the provision.

     "(f) If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid, all valid provisions that are severable from the invalid provision remain in effect. If a provision of this Act is held invalid in any of its applications, the provision remains valid for all valid applications that are severable from any of the invalid applications."

Improvement of United States Code by Pub. L. 97–452; Legislative Purpose; Inconsistent Provisions; Corresponding Provisions; Savings and Separability of Provisions

     Pub. L. 97–452, § 3, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2479, provided that:

     "(a) Sections 1 and 2 of this Act restate, without substantive change, laws enacted before December 1, 1982, that were replaced by those sections. Sections 1 and 2 may not be construed as making a substantive change in the laws replaced. Laws enacted after November 30, 1982, that are inconsistent with this Act supersede this Act to the extent of the inconsistency.

     "(b) A reference to a law replaced by sections 1 and 2 of this Act, including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law, is deemed to refer to the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

     "(c) An order, rule, or regulation in effect under a law replaced by sections 1 and 2 of this Act continues in effect under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act until repealed, amended, or superseded.

     "(d) An action taken or an offense committed under a law replaced by sections 1 and 2 of this Act is deemed to have been taken or committed under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

     "(e) An inference of a legislative construction is not to be drawn by reason of the location in the United States Code of a provision enacted by this Act or by reason of the caption or catchline of the provision.

     "(f) If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid, all valid provisions that are severable from the invalid provision remain in effect. If a provision of this Act is held invalid in any of its applications, the provision remains valid for all valid applications that are severable from any of the invalid applications."

Title Referred to in Other Sections

     This title is referred to in title 12 sections 93, 1464, 1722d, 1786, 1818; title 26 section 6050I; title 28 section 613; title 40 section 490b; title 49 section 24301.

SUBTITLE I—GENERAL

Chap.     Sec.

1.     Definitions     101

3.     Department of the Treasury     301

5.     Office of Management and Budget     501

7.     General Accounting Office     701

9.     Agency Chief Financial Officers     901

Amendments

     1990—Pub. L. 101–576, title II, § 205(b), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2845, added item for chapter 9.

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Chicago: "U.S. Congress, Office of the Law Revision Counsel", "Title 31— Money and Finance," U.S. Code, Title 31, Money and Finance in U.S. Code, Title 31, Money and Finance (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 2002), Original Sources, accessed July 2, 2022, http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=Y9AXNX78Z6WLZ46.

MLA: "U.S. Congress, Office of the Law Revision Counsel". "Title 31— Money and Finance." U.S. Code, Title 31, Money and Finance, in U.S. Code, Title 31, Money and Finance, Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office, 2002, Original Sources. 2 Jul. 2022. http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=Y9AXNX78Z6WLZ46.

Harvard: "U.S. Congress, Office of the Law Revision Counsel", 'Title 31— Money and Finance' in U.S. Code, Title 31, Money and Finance. cited in 2002, U.S. Code, Title 31, Money and Finance, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.. Original Sources, retrieved 2 July 2022, from http://www.originalsources.com/Document.aspx?DocID=Y9AXNX78Z6WLZ46.